Veranstaltungen

Bildung und Familie

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
6. Juni 2012

Cluster-Seminar Öffentliche Finanzen und Lebenslagen Effects of introducing a general interest barrier - Evidence from the German corporate tax reform 2008

In this study we investigate the impact of the thin capitalization rule (TCR) introduced in Germany in 2008 on firms; capital structure, investment and profitability. Since all firms are better off by avoiding the TCR, this means analyzing firms; behavior to avoid the TCR. The identification of the causal effects is based on the escape clauses in the regulation using a difference-in-difference approach. Our results present evidence that firms strongly react (to the new regulation) in order to avoid the limited deductibility of interest expenses: They either decrease their debt ratio or split their assets to use the exemption limit. The latter is especially used by firms with an interest result around the exemption limit of the interest barrier. In general no negative investment effects are caused in the short run by the TCR. This suggests that a part of the firms is able to substitute equity for debt at low costs or expects to be able to circumvent the regulation. However, investment might also be fixed in the short-run for example due to long-lasting contracts. Moreover, our results suggest that the TCR is quite successful in broadening the tax base in the short-run.

Referent/-in
Zeit
12:30-13:30
Ort
DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Raum 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
Ansprechpartner/-in
im DIW Berlin
Tel.: +49 30 89789 308
16. Mai 2012

SOEP Brown Bag Seminar SOEP Brown Bag Seminar
Day care (quality) and differences in child outcomes

Studies in recent years show that universal child care has a beneficial impact on children‘s outcomes (e.g., Havnes/Mogstad 2009, 2011, Datta‐Gupta/Simonsen 2010, 2011). However evidence remains mixed on whether all types of day care attendance have a positive effect on children's development.  Some papers show that day care attendance can also negatively influence child outcomes: e.g. Seyda (2009) or Landvogit et al. (2007) examine if day care attendance increases children's likelihood to attend higher secondary education by accounting for full-time and part-time day care attendance. Both studies conclude that a longer duration decreases children's likelihood of higher secondary schooling. Yet, these studies investigate attendance vs. non‐attendance, or formal care vs. informal care, but day care "quantity" and day care quality are rarely differentiated.

By combining data from the German Socio-Economic Panel study (SOEP) and administrative data on day care quality, this paper examines potential effects of duration of day care attendance as well as the underlying structural quality of day care institutions at the "Jugendamtsbezirk" (youth welfare office) level on changes in children's health or personality traits. If parents regard day care as an investment in the human capital of children, they were to prefer day care centers with "better" quality. Day care facilities vary in terms of structural quality, e.g. staff-child-ratio, group size, or education of day care teachers. Hence while it might be beneficial to attend a day care center, a longer stay at a facility with mediocre quality might have negative consequences.  This paper investigates in what way a child's duration of day care attendance and the quality of day care facilities influences differences in children's health or personality traits between age three and six. Preliminary results indicate that day care quality explains some of the variation in children's health and personality traits between age three and six.

Referent/-in
Zeit
12:30 - 13:30
Ort
DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Raum 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
Ansprechpartner/-in
im DIW Berlin
Tel.: +49 30 89789 344
9. Mai 2012

Cluster-Seminar Öffentliche Finanzen und Lebenslagen The Generalized Roy Model and The Cost-Benefit Analysis of Social Programs

The standard analysis of treatment eff ects only considers the gross benefi t of treatment and does not consider the cost as perceived by the agents or the surplus arising from participation in programs (the private subjective evaluation of the program). This paper extends the analysis of Heckman and Vytlacil (1999, 2005) to identify parameters measuring the costs and net gains of arising from participation in a program within the context of a generalized Roy model. The analysis does not require that the analyst observe the subjective cost of treatment. Instead, we use information derived from agent choices about participating in a program to infer the cost of treatment as perceived by the agent. We apply our methodology to the analysis of college choice and nd that variability in net gains from attending college is mainly due to variability in the cost associated with schooling.

Referent/-in
  • Philipp Eisenhauer (ZEW Mannheim)
  • Zeit
    16:30-17:30
    Ort
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Raum 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 308
    11. April 2012

    Cluster-Seminar Öffentliche Finanzen und Lebenslagen Labor supply of mothers with young children: Validating a structural model using a natural experiment

    In this paper we estimate an intertemporal structural model of labor supply for mothers with young children. In order to validate the structural model, we make use of a recently introduced parental leave reform in Germany. We compare the behavioral predictions of the structural model under the reform (out-of-sample fit) to results based on an evaluation of the parental leave reform as a natural experiment. We show that the structural model predicts actual behavior reasonably well. Based on both methods we find that due to the new parental leave scheme, that pays higher benefits for a shorter period of time, labor supply of mothers in the first year after giving birth declines, however increases in the second year. The results differ by socio-economic characteristics. We find the strongest effects for low-income mothers, who have a significantly higher probability to return to work two years after giving birth than under the old parental leave scheme.

    Referent/-in
    Zeit
    12:00-13:00
    Ort
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Raum 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 308
    3. April 2012

    Cluster-Seminar Öffentliche Finanzen und Lebenslagen Effects of changes in student composition on teacher mobility. Evidence from the admission reform

    This paper examines teacher job mobility using matcher employee-employer panel data from Stockholm municipality upper secondary schools. I utilize the exogenous change in upper secondary school admission which led to the sharp reshuffling of students within the municipality. This quasi experimental set up provides a unique opportunity to investigate the relationship between changes in student attributes and changes in teacher quality and turnover, which are not confounded with changes in school or neighborhood characteristics. Comparison of ordinary least squares and difference-in-differences estimates suggest that the former ones are severely biased and could provide a highly misleading, from policy perspective, conclusions. The causal estimates indicate that schools that experience upward shocks in student quality are more successful in retaining teachers, in particular, these that are more experienced and of high cognitive skills. Furthermore, I do find significant heterogeneity in the impact of minorities and principals compensatory behavior towards teachers. Nonetheless, the results suggest that student characteristics are endogenous to teacher turnover decisions.

    Referent/-in
  • Krzysztof Karbownik (Uppsala University)
  • Zeit
    12:30-13:30
    Ort
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Raum 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 308
    21. März 2012

    Berlin Lunchtime Meeting Bildungssystem in Deutschland: Die langfristigen Effekte der Schulwahl auf Bildungsabschlüsse und auf Löhne

    Vortrag: Prof. Christian Dustmann, PhD. | University College London
    Kommentar: Martin Spiewak
    | DIE ZEIT
    Moderation: Prof. Dr. C. Katharina Spieß | DIW Berlin 

    In Zeiten zunehmender sozialer Ungleichheit in Deutschland wird der frühen Selektion der Schulkinder im Alter von 10 Jahren durch das dreigliedrige Schulsystem immer mehr der Vorwurf gemacht, sie trage zur Zementierung von Ungleichheit bei. Viele Statistiken verweisen auf den Zusammenhang von elterlicher Bildung und Schulwahl im Alter von 10 Jahren, einem Alter, in dem die Kinder noch keine eigenständigen Lebens- und Bildungsentscheidungen getroffen haben können. Eine neue Studie der Forscher Christian Dustmann und Uta Schoenberg vom University College London sowie Patrick Puhani von der Leibniz Universität Hannover zeigt nun, dass die Schulwahl im Alter von 10 Jahren keine langfristigen Effekte auf Schulabschlüsse und Löhne hat, weil das deutsche Schulsystem flexibel genug ist, um frühe Fehlentscheidungen zu späteren Zeitpunkten zu korrigieren.

    Prof. Christian Dustmann, PhD. | Professor an der Fakultät für Wirtschaftswissenschaften am University College London und Leiter des Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM). 1992 Promotion in Wirtschaftswissenschaften am European University Institute mit Habilitation an der Universität Bielefeld 1997. Dustmann ist Mitherausgeber der Zeitschriften Journal of Population Economics und Economic Journal. Research Fellow am Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR), London und am Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Zudem ist er wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter am Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS) und am Centre for Economic Performance (CEP), London. Zu seinen Hauptforschungsinteressen gehören Zusammenhänge zwischen Demographie und Wirtschaft und Arbeitsmarkttheorien. In diesen Forschungsbereichen hat er bereits zahlreiche Werke veröffentlicht.

    Martin Spiewak | Redakteur Wissen, DIE ZEIT. Nach dem Abitur leistete er seinen Zivildienst im Altersheim, studierte Geschichte und Spanisch in Hamburg und Madrid und Journalismus in München. Bevor er zum "Deutschen Allgemeinen Sonntagsblatt" ging, reiste er ein Jahr durch Mexiko und Kolumbien und arbeitete mit Straßenkindern. 1999 kam er zu der ZEIT ins Wissen. Bildung ist sein großes Thema. 2007 verbrachte er mehrere Monate an der Harvard University, um über Integration zu arbeiten.

    Prof. Dr. C. Katharina Spieß | Leiterin der Abteilung Bildungspolitik am DIW Berlin. Ihr Forschungs- und Publikationsschwerpunkt liegt im Bereich der Frühkindlichen Bildung.

    Die Veranstaltung findet in deutscher Sprache statt.

    Wir freuen uns auf Ihre Teilnahme an dieser Veranstaltung und bitten Sie, Ihre verbindliche Anmeldung via E-Mail an zu senden.

    Zeit
    12:00 - 13:00
    Ort
    DIW Berlin (Schumpeter Saal) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 569
    29. Februar 2012

    Cluster-Seminar Öffentliche Finanzen und Lebenslagen Risks and Returns to Educational Fields - A financial asset approach to vocational and academic education

    Applying a financial assets approach, we investigate the risks and returns to investments into different types of human capital. Even so the returns from investing in human capital have expensively been studied, little is known about the properties of the return to different types of human capital. Using information from the German Micro Census, we estimate the risk and returns to around 70 fields of study and differentiate between vocational and academic education. We find that there is a general trade-off between returns and earnings risk and human capital investments. Furthermore, we rank fields of education by their returns per unit of risk and find that academic education is not always superior to vocational education.

    Referent/-in
    Zeit
    12:30-13:30
    Ort
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Raum 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 308
    18. Januar 2012

    Cluster-Seminar Öffentliche Finanzen und Lebenslagen The Dynamics of Earnings in Germany: Evidence from Social Security Records

    We examine patterns of earnings volatility for male employees who are subject to statutory social security contributions in West Germany over the period 1986 - 2005. For this purpose, we analyse individual records covering highly reliable earnings biographies provided by the German Social Security Administration. We decompose earnings into permanent and transitory components and estimate parameters of the underlying variance-covariance structure of the earnings components model. This provides insights into the mechanics of earnings dynamics of the German labour market. We find evidence for increasing overall volatility which is predominantly driven by the permanent earnings component and therefore indicates increasing earnings inequality.

    Referent/-in
    Zeit
    12:30-13:30
    Ort
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Raum 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 517
    23. Nov 2011

    Cluster-Seminar Öffentliche Finanzen und Lebenslagen When can we trust population thresholds in regression discontinuity designs

    A recent literature uses variation just around legislative population thresholds to identify causal effects of institutional changes. We review the use of regression discontinuity designs using such thresholds. Our concern is threefold: (1) simultaneous exogenous (co-)treatment, (2) simultaneous endogenous choices and (3) manipulation and precise control over population measures. Revisiting the study by Egger and Koethenbuerger (2010), who analyse the relationship between council size and government spending, we present new evidence that these concerns matter for causal analysis. Our results suggest that empirical designs using population thresholds should be used with utmost care and confidence in the precise institutional setting.

    Referent/-in
  • Florian Ade
  • Zeit
    12:30-13:30
    Ort
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Raum 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 517
    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10