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3 April 2012

Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Effects of changes in student composition on teacher mobility. Evidence from the admission reform

This paper examines teacher job mobility using matcher employee-employer panel data from Stockholm municipality upper secondary schools. I utilize the exogenous change in upper secondary school admission which led to the sharp reshuffling of students within the municipality. This quasi experimental set up provides a unique opportunity to investigate the relationship between changes in student attributes and changes in teacher quality and turnover, which are not confounded with changes in school or neighborhood characteristics. Comparison of ordinary least squares and difference-in-differences estimates suggest that the former ones are severely biased and could provide a highly misleading, from policy perspective, conclusions. The causal estimates indicate that schools that experience upward shocks in student quality are more successful in retaining teachers, in particular, these that are more experienced and of high cognitive skills. Furthermore, I do find significant heterogeneity in the impact of minorities and principals compensatory behavior towards teachers. Nonetheless, the results suggest that student characteristics are endogenous to teacher turnover decisions.

Speaker
  • Krzysztof Karbownik (Uppsala University)
  • Time
    12:30-13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 308
    22 March 2012

    SOEP Brown Bag Seminar SOEP Brown Bag Seminar
    Social Change and Family Formation: The German Reunification

    This project uses the German reunification to study how social change impacts two aspects of women's family formation: standardization - the degree to which women's family formation is similar, and pluralization - the development of new family formation patterns. In view of the Second Demographic Transition (SDT), institutional, economic, and ideational explanations for family behavior are discussed. The study proposes a new sequence analytical approach to calculate within and between group differences in family formation trajectories. Findings from the German Life History Study (GLHS) show a rapid de-standardization of family formation among East German women after the reunification. With the breakdown of the communist regime, East German women shifted away from a traditional early marriage pattern to alternative family forms. In contrast, West German women's family formation is more standardized after the reunification than before. They polarize into either a traditional or a delayed family formation pattern. As a result, East and West German women's family formation is just as different in the decades following the reunification as it was in divided Germany. The findings support that de-standardization and pluralization of family formation are transitional features of the SDT with a re-standardization of new family forms, once societies have passed through the SDT.

    Speaker
  • Anette Fasang (HU Berlin)
  • Time
    13:30 - 14:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Ferdinand-Friedensburg-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 2.2.008 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 308
    7 March 2012

    SOEP Brown Bag Seminar SOEP Brown Bag Seminar
    How Important is the Family? Evidence from Sibling Correlations in the US, Germany and Denmark

    This paper is the first to analyze intergenerational economic mobility based on sibling correlations in permanent economic outcomes in Germany and to provide a cross-country comparison of Germany, Denmark, and the US. The main findings are as follows: the importance of family and community background in Germany is higher than in Denmark and comparable to that in the US. This holds true for brothers and sisters. In Denmark 20 percent of the inequality in permanent earnings can be attributed to family and community factors shared by brothers while the corresponding estimates are 43 percent in Germany and 45 percent in the US. For sisters the estimates are 19 percent for Denmark, 39 percent for Germany and 29 percent for the US. This ranking is shown to be robust against alternative approaches.

    Speaker
    Time
    12:30 - 13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Gustav-Schmoller-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 3.3.002A Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 308
    29 February 2012

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Risks and Returns to Educational Fields - A financial asset approach to vocational and academic education

    Applying a financial assets approach, we investigate the risks and returns to investments into different types of human capital. Even so the returns from investing in human capital have expensively been studied, little is known about the properties of the return to different types of human capital. Using information from the German Micro Census, we estimate the risk and returns to around 70 fields of study and differentiate between vocational and academic education. We find that there is a general trade-off between returns and earnings risk and human capital investments. Furthermore, we rank fields of education by their returns per unit of risk and find that academic education is not always superior to vocational education.

    Speaker
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 308
    18 January 2012

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions The Dynamics of Earnings in Germany: Evidence from Social Security Records

    We examine patterns of earnings volatility for male employees who are subject to statutory social security contributions in West Germany over the period 1986 - 2005. For this purpose, we analyse individual records covering highly reliable earnings biographies provided by the German Social Security Administration. We decompose earnings into permanent and transitory components and estimate parameters of the underlying variance-covariance structure of the earnings components model. This provides insights into the mechanics of earnings dynamics of the German labour market. We find evidence for increasing overall volatility which is predominantly driven by the permanent earnings component and therefore indicates increasing earnings inequality.

    Speaker
    Time
    12:30-13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 517
    14 Dec 2011

    SOEP Brown Bag Seminar SOEP Brown Bag Seminar
    Is health a predictor of job loss and high status attainment? A gender sensitive approach to health selection on the labor market

    Health effects on the labor market have most often been assessed using wage as the outcome variable. I estimate health effects on involuntary job loss and attainment of a high status position to see if health has an impact beyond wages. Using SOEP data and controlling for a wide range of human capital and non-labor-market constraints to capture indirect health selection I can show that there are indeed health effects on job loss and high status attainment. These effects differ by gender for high status attainment, but not for job loss. An explanation of increased returns to health in presence of discrimination is offered.
    In the end problems regarding measurement of health and bias due to simultaneity are and possible are discussed.

    Speaker
    Time
    12:30 - 13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Gustav-Schmoller-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 3.3.002A Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 308
    23 Nov 2011

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions When can we trust population thresholds in regression discontinuity designs

    A recent literature uses variation just around legislative population thresholds to identify causal effects of institutional changes. We review the use of regression discontinuity designs using such thresholds. Our concern is threefold: (1) simultaneous exogenous (co-)treatment, (2) simultaneous endogenous choices and (3) manipulation and precise control over population measures. Revisiting the study by Egger and Koethenbuerger (2010), who analyse the relationship between council size and government spending, we present new evidence that these concerns matter for causal analysis. Our results suggest that empirical designs using population thresholds should be used with utmost care and confidence in the precise institutional setting.

    Speaker
  • Florian Ade
  • Time
    12:30 - 13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 517
    12 Sept 2011

    Berlin Lunchtime Meeting The Gender Pay Gap in the US: Going, Going, ..., But Not Gone

    Chair: Elke Holst
    Introduction: Anne Busch

    Professor Blau will describe trends in the gender pay gap in the United States in an international perspective, particularly the important gains in recent decades. She will consider fundamental explanations for the gender pay gap and use these explanations to understand the trends. Among the questions that she will consider are: Has discrimination against women in the US and other advanced countries declined? Does it still exist? What role do improvements in women's qualifications play in the reduction in the gender pay gap? Are there broad market-wide trends that help to explain the decrease? In particular, have trends in the demand for labor favored women relative to men? Why is the gender pay gap in the United States larger than in many other economically advanced countries? What role do government policies play in reducing the gender pay gap?

    Prof. Francine D. Blau, Frances Perkins Professor of Industrial and Labor Relations and Professor of Economics at Cornell University/USA, also DIW Research Professor, Research Associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research, and a Research Fellow of IZA and CESIfo in Germany. She has written widely on gender issues, wage inequality, immigration, and international comparisons of labor market outcomes. In 2010 in Germany, the IZA Prize for outstanding academic achievement in the field of labor economics; she was the first woman to receive this prestigious award. Professor Blau has served as President of the Society of Labor Economists and the Labor and Employment Relations Association (formerly the Industrial Relations Research Association), Vice President of the American Economic Association (AEA), President of the Midwest Economics Association, and Chair of the AEA Committee on the Status of Women in the Economics Profession.

    Anne Busch: DIW Berlin and Berlin Graduate School of Social Sciences at Humboldt Universität zu Berlin.

    PD Dr. Elke Holst: Research Director Gender Studies, DIW Berlin.

    Registration is required. Please send an email to: .

    We look forward to your participation.

    Speaker
  • Prof. Francine D. Blau, Ph.D

  • Time
    12.00 - 13.00 followed by a buffet lunch
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Schumpeter Saal) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 569
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