Giovanni Vitani (Copyright)  Lernen Vorschule Bilderbuch
Economic Bulletin, 19 Oct 2017

Private household expenditures on child care in centers have significantly risen: from an average of 98 euros per month in 2005 to just under 171 euros in 2015 for a child under three and for children three and older (“Kindergarten” age group), from 71 to 97 euros in the period between 1 ... more

Florian Mühlbauer (Copyright)  Afrika Farbbild Farbfoto
Roundup, 13 Oct 2017

Microenterprises account for a large fraction of employment in developing countries and they are likely to increase in importance in the future. In Sub-Saharan Africa, for example, around 8 million additional jobs need to be created annually in order to cope with the increasing number of new ... more

Anneke Volke (Copyright)  Farbbild Farbfoto Farbphoto
Economic Bulletin, 11 Oct 2017

For social and economic reasons, national economies benefit from the inclusion of as many people as possible in financial services. In a cross country study, the present study shows that financial literacy for the general population promotes financial inclusion. This relationship goes beyond the ... more

DIW Berlin (Copyright)  Gemeinschaftsdiagnose Herbst
Press Release, 28 Sep 2017

Press release of the project group "Gemeinschaftsdiagnose": German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin), Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH), ifo Institute, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), RWI - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research more

Jürgen Wiesler (Copyright)  Mathematik Mathe Tafel
Roundup, 28 Sep 2017

Mental health conditions are a leading cause of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and health costs worldwide: They account for 199 million DALYs or 37 percent of healthy life years lost from non-communicable diseases. The sum of direct and indirect costs worldwide were estimated to amount to 2. ... more

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by Sophia Schmitz, C. Katharina Spieß, Juliane F. Stahl, in DIW Economic Bulletin

Private household expenditures on child care in centers have significantly risen: from an average of 98 euros per month in 2005 to just under 171 euros in 2015 for a child under three and for children three and older (“Kindergarten”1 age group), from 71 to 97 euros in the period between 1996 and 2015. At the same time, more and more households are completely exempt from paying fees for day care. However, relative to their income, households on or below the poverty line that have day care expenditures still pay virtually the same amount as other households. For the first time, based on data from the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) and the special study Families in Germany (FiD), the present report shows trends in day care expenditures in recent years and who is carrying how much of a burden as a result. Lower income households and single parents in the Kindergarten age group have been affected to a lesser extent or not at all by increases in day care expenditures over the years. Nevertheless, in the future progressive fee scales should be implemented more thoroughly and, above all, uniformly throughout the federal states. It is not necessary to make day care universally free of charge because households in upper income groups have expressed a high willingness to pay. This potential has not been fully utilized and could be enhanced—especially if public money is used to improve day care quality.

by Antonia Grohmann, Lukas Menkhoff, in DIW Economic Bulletin

For social and economic reasons, national economies benefit from the inclusion of as many people as possible in financial services. In a cross country study, the present study shows that financial literacy for the general population promotes financial inclusion. This relationship goes beyond the effect of higher economic or financial development. And the effect of higher levels of financial literacy is greatest on the “use of financial products” in financial systems that are more developed. On the contrary, the educational effect on “access to finance” is greatest for countries that are financially less developed. Economic policy that targets financial inclusion should therefore not only concentrate on financial infrastructure, but also on improving financial literacy.

by Nils May, Ingmar Jürgens, Karsten Neuhoff, in DIW Economic Bulletin

The costs of renewable energy technologies have fallen sharply. Now the financing costs of new installations are playing an increasing role in the overall cost of Germany’s energy transition. This has put the primary focus of support instruments for renewable energy on creating more affordable financing conditions for investments. This report compares the effects of various policy instruments on risk factors and on the costs of financing investment in the energy transition. Based on a survey evaluation and calculations, our analysis shows significant increases in the financing costs under green certificates and fixed premiums. These are passed on to end customers. For this reason, the further development of support instruments, as currently discussed within the context of the EU Renewable Energy Directive for the period 2020–2030, should avoid unnecessary risks for investors that could lead to higher financing costs.

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