Veranstaltungen

Bildung und Familie

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7 February 2014

DIW Applied Micro Seminar Social Insurance and Retirement: A Cross-Country Perspective

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Speaker
  • Prof. Johanna Wallenius, Stockholm School of Economics
  • Time
    13:15-14:45
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 210
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 165
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 264
    29 January 2014

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Is Being Tough Helpful? Search Requirements, Sanction Threats and Time to Job Finding

    (joint with Patrick Arni)
    The enforcement of job search requirements is increasingly employed to determine the level of search effort provided by unemployment insurance recipients. We evaluate the impacts of this policy on the rate of job finding. Previous research on job search monitoring has focused on the effects of an imposed benefit sanction. By estimating the impacts of requirement policies and their anticipated enforcement, we analyze how monitoring affects search outcomes before a sanction event occurs. New Swiss administrative data sources allow us to match individual-level information on requirement setting, compliance behavior and enforcement policies. We estimate a multivariate duration model which we complement with quasi-experimental variation in our parameters of interest. Our preliminary results indicate that additional applications generated by a high-requirement policy do not directly translate into job search success. Search requirements rather seem to influence unemployment exit rates through changes in non-compliance behavior and sanction anticipation.

    Speaker
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 610
    15 January 2014

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Educational Choice against All the Odds - Personality Traits as a Tool Kit?

    Students from a non-academic background have a significant lower probability of receiving tertiary education than their peers from an academic background. This is true even in an educational system where higher education is free of charge and financial constraints play a rather small role. Many theoretical and empirical articles describe reasons for this inequality. While primary effects, as less educational input at home, and secondary effects, fewer financial resources, explain the lower attendance, few studies show the factors that lead to a successful transition into tertiary education. In this paper we examine students who enter college against all the odds. Holding parental background and cognitive ability constant, by applying a propensity score matching method, we show that personality traits explain college enrollment intentions. The results show that educational policies should not neglect students' non-cognitive skills, as these skills help explain how to close the educational gap. Our first preliminary results show that "openness to experience" increases students' intention to pursue a college degree.(joint with Frauke Peter)

    Speaker
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 610
    18 Dec 2013

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Transition to Parenthood and the Dynamic of Women´s Economic Dependency. A Comparison of Germany and Switzerland

    Speaker
  • Lena Liechti
  • Time
    12:30 - 13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 610
    4 Dec 2013

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions What happens if women disappear from the labor market? Occupational status of women at marriage in a modernizing society

    joint with Ineke Maas & Marco H.D. van Leeuwen

    The nineteenth and twentieth centuries are an especially interesting period to investigate women's status attainment in Western societies because interesting and partly contrary developments took place. First, women increasingly withdrew from the labor market after marriage, possibly as a consequence of increasing prosperity that allowed families to survive on only one (the male) income. Secondly girls increasingly participated in secondary education which should have given them more job opportunities. Thirdly, in part due to the early suffragette movement, notions on equal treatment of men and women gained ground. In view of these developments we will answer the following questions: How did the occupational status of women at marriage change over time, and how did it vary between regions? To what extent can regional and temporal variation in the occupational status of women at marriage be explained by (a) the decrease in women's labour force participation rates (b) the increase in schooling of girls and (c) the increase of gender equality notions?

    The data we use, the GENLIAS dataset is an excellent source to study status attainment at marriage over a long period of time. It includes all 19th and early 20th century marriage certificates of the Netherlands. The 911,602 marriage certificates that we analyze do not only contain information on the married persons, but also on their parents, ages and often their occupational titles. In addition the place of marriage is noted. These rich information allow us to employ a multi-level research design, where the theoretical processes are measured at the level of municipalities, and may vary yearly.

    Speaker
  • Wiebke Schulz (University of Bielefeld)
  • Time
    12:30 - 13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 610
    20 Nov 2013

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Employment and Wage Impacts of Social Security Contributions

    We present work in progress on evaluating the employment and wage effects of social security contributions (SSC). We propose to use an equilibrium job search model allowing for extensive and intensive employment reactions, with firms also changing wages. The model naturally generates adjustment dynamics. Using firm-level data on productivity will allow us to identify to what extent productive workers and productive firms sort positively - an estimate for which we believe tax policy must be taken into account. We include detailed information on corporate taxation. The direction and degree of sorting will also determine the distributional impacts of SSC policies across different individuals. We propose to use long-running matched employer-employee data from France and Germany to consider the impacts of large changes in SSC on employment and wages.

    Speaker
    Time
    12:30 - 13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 610
    6 Nov 2013

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Music or Sports - An empirical analysis of their differential effects on child development

    (joint with Charlotte Cabane and Michael Lechner)

    Previous studies on the effects of leisure activities on skill development do not discuss whether such activities are complements or substitutes. Comparing to which extent various extracurricular activities influence skill development brings us closer to understanding the formation of educational inequalities as well as the mechanisms behind skill production. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, our study compares the role of music and sports for the development of cognitive and non-cognitive skills during adolescence. We use parental taste as an instrumental variable to account for the non-random choice between these activities. Our preliminary findings suggest that music is better than sports for increasing adolescents' ambition and optimism about future success.

    Speaker
    Time
    12:30-13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 610
    17 July 2013

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Labor supply estimation with endogenous rationing. An application to the federal minimum wage in Germany

    This paper extends a standard static structural labor supply framework by taking labor demand constraints into account. Contrary to previous papers the rationing risk is not only determined by exogenous demand side factors, but also depends on the individual's productivity. The resulting labor supply elasticities from the extended framework differ from the unconstrained model. This approach is shown to be particularly useful for evaluating policy reforms that affect labor supply incentives and have direct consequences for labor costs. We apply the model to analyze the employment effects of a federal minimum wage in Germany as well as the impact of employer- vs. employee-oriented wage subsidies under a statutory minimum.

    Speaker
    Time
    12:30 - 13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 355
    21 June 2013

    DIW Applied Micro Seminar Offering Intensive Support to At-Risk High School Students
    A Program Evaluation of Pathways to Education

    The Pathways to Education Program is an intervention that was developed to encourage schooling among disadvantaged early high school students. The program adopts a multi-faceted approach, offering extensive tutoring, mentoring, and financial support, as well as easy access to student-parent workers who provide information and advice as needed on a wide range of issues. The program began in the 2001-2002 school year for transitioning Grade 8 students in two schools surrounding Regent Park, a large public housing project in downtown Toronto. Participation required parents and students to commit in writing to the program. This study presents the first evaluation of the pathways program using publicly available data.

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    Speaker
  • Philip Oreopoulos, University of Toronto
  • Time
    13:15-14:45
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 468
    19 June 2013

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Natural Disaster, Policy Disaster, Policy Action, and Mental Well-Being: The Case of Fukushima

    We study the impact of the Fukushima disaster on people's mental distress in another industrialized country, 5500 miles away. The meltdown significantly increased environmental concerns by 25% among the German population. Subsequent drastic policy action permanently shut down the oldest nuclear reactors, implemented the phase-out of the remaining ones, and proclaimed the transition to renewables. This energy policy turnaround was largely supported by the population and equalized the increase in mental distress. We fail to detect any significant long-term impact of Fukushima. However, we estimate that during the 3 months after the meltdown, Fukushima triggered external monetized health costs worth €250 per distressed citizen-particularly among risk averse women above 40.

    Authors
  • Asst. Prof. Dr. Nicolas R. Ziebarth, Cornell University
  • Time
    12:30 - 13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 355
    5 June 2013

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Education and time investment in children: Is Germany different?

    Parental investment in terms of money and time is considered to be crucial for a child's development. Research on childcare, which is mainly based on US data, agrees that education has a positive impact on maternal caring time, despite the fact that high earning prospects increase the incentives for labor market participation. Given differences in the family support and other aspect of family environment there is no reason to believe that these results apply to all other countries.
    This paper provides evidence for West Germany using the German Time Use Survey (GTUS). Comparable results show no significantly positive effect of college education on childcare time for mothers. This is in particular the case for university education. The highest secondary school degree, however, has a positive impact on childcare for mothers. Households with a university educated mother divide caring responsibilities differently. Their partners spend significantly more time caring, especially during the week. These mothers spend relatively more time caring on weekends and daycare is used more often. On weekends the father's university education has a positive impact on caring time, especially the time spend with the child and another adult. These results are strongly influenced by households with a child that is in pre-school age. Analyzing subcategories of childcare separately reveals that university educated mothers spend relatively less time on basic and recreational care, but more on educational care activities.

    The effects for West Germany are directly contrasted to four other OECD countries and East Germany. In France and East Germany, two areas with a relative high supply of public daycare, the effect of college education for mothers it is even negative on weekdays. In Spain, a typical Southern European country, it is only a little larger than in West Germany. In the Anglo-Saxon countries, UK and US, the marginal effect of education is relatively larger. Controlling for the partner's education shrinks the effect for the US. The partner's characteristic may consequently be one driving force behind the educational effects. The mother's college education has a positive effect on the father's caring time in all countries but the UK and East Germany.

    Speaker
  • Verena Lauber, Universität Konstanz
  • Time
    12:30 - 13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 355
    22 May 2013

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Estimating labour supply elasticity from bunching: Some issues

    Speaker
    Time
    12:30 - 13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 355
    3 May 2013

    DIW Applied Micro Seminar The Intergenerational Transfer of the Gender Gap in Labor Force Participation

    Abstract: In this paper we empirically investigate the intergenerational transfer of a gender gap in labor force participation. Specifically, we analyze the extent to which the family and the local community nurture the gender gap. We utilize extremely rich registry data that allows us to estimate the effect of gender on labor force participation in sibling fixed effects models, and study how the gender effect differs across family and neighborhood characteristics during childhood. The underlying idea is that genetic or hormonal differences contributing to gender differences in labor supply are independent of family and neighborhood characteristics. The results suggest that childhood environment plays a large role in explaining the gender differences in labor force participation.

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    Speaker
  • Mari Rege, Uni Stavanger, Norway
  • Time
    13:15-14:45
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 468
    24 April 2013

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Reducing binge drinking? The effect of a ban on late-night off-premise alcohol sales on alcohol-related hospital stays

    Excessive alcohol consumption among the youth is a major public health concern both in Germany and Europe. In March 2010 the German federal state of Baden-Württemberg banned the sale of alcoholic beverages between 10pm and 5am in off-premise outlets (e.g. petrol stations, supermarkets). We use monthly administrative data from a 70% random sample of all hospital admissions for the years 2007-2010 in order to evaluate the impact of this policy on alcohol-related hospitalizations. Applying a difference-in-difference approach, we find that the policy change reduces alcohol-related hospitalizations among teenagers and young adults by about 7-10%. (joint with Thomas Siedler)

    Speaker
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 355
    17 April 2013

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Do mothers adjust their labor supply in response to child-raising benefits in the pension system?

    Speaker
    Time
    12:30 - 13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 355
    20 March 2013

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Bank’s trading activity, the lending channel and real investment - Evidence from individual firm-bank relationships in Germany

    What began as a financial crisis in 2007/2008 quickly became a massive crisis of the real economy. We investigate the importance of the bank lending and firm borrowing channel in the transmission of asset price shocks to real investment. For the analysis we match individual firm and bank financial statements in Germany for the period of 2004-2010. The data include a large number of medium sized businesses. Using IV estimations in first differences to eliminate firm- and bank-specific effects, we find that banks which experience losses from their trading activities cut back lending, and firms whose relationship banks reduce lending decrease investment. The results support the view that a separation of own trading from commercial bank activities may contribute to shielding the real economy from financial crises.

    Speaker
    Time
    12:30 - 13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 355
    6 March 2013

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Distributional Analysis of the Gender Wage Gap

    Speaker
    Time
    12:30 - 13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 355
    20 February 2013

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Day-care quality and work-care choices of mothers in Germany

    This study investigates the relationship between locally available quality of early childhood education and care (ECEC) institutions and the probability of maternal employment, use of formal and informal care arrangements. By considering several indicators of structural quality we extend the existing literature which has mostly focused on the importance of availability or costs of ECEC services for maternal work-care choices during the early years. We investigate the relationships with formal and informal care use, which mostly have been examined in two separate strands of the literature. Furthermore, we provide differentiated analyses for mothers with children aged under three and from three to school age, for East and West Germany, and for partnered and single mothers.

    The empirical analysis is based on the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) and on the "Families in Germany"-Study (FiD) for 2010 and 2011, which are linked with regional data on structural quality from German youth and welfare offices in 2010. We use probit regression models of maternal employment, use of formal and informal care, respectively. These components of maternal work-care decisions are interdependent and may be influenced by common unobserved factors. Therefore, the error terms between the probit regressions are allowed to correlate in a framework of seemingly unrelated estimations. Our results show negative associations of local child-teacher-ratios with maternal (full-time) employment and (full-day) formal ECEC use in several subgroups. The effects are stronger for single mothers compared to those with a partner and stronger in West Germany than in East Germany. Other structural quality indicators, such as group size and teacher education, are not significantly related to or show counterintuitive associations with maternal work-care arrangements.

    Speaker
    Time
    12:30 - 13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 355
    9 January 2013

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions How learning a musical instrument affects educational achievement

    Learning a musical instrument during childhood may increase educational opportunities by improving cognitive skills, teaching non-cognitive skills or by sending positive signals to teachers. Our study tests these hypotheses with data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, which contains information on musical practice during childhood as well as detailed parental background characteristics. In order to reduce the bias resulting from non-random selection into musical practice, we use propensity score matching. Moreover, we test the robustness of our results with siblings fixed effects. We find that learning a musical instrument improves cognitive skills by 0.3 and school marks by 0.15 standard deviations. Educational ambitions improve whereas non-cognitive skills do not seem to be affected. Positive effects are stronger for children from lower socio-economic status.

    Speaker
    Time
    12:30-13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 355
    19 Dec 2012

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Die Nachfrage nach Energie, Mobilität und Freizeit und Auswirkungen der EEG-Umlage

    Ein Nachfragesystem, dass Mobilität, Energiegüter und Freizeit (respektive Arbeitsangebot) einschließt, wird mit den Einkommens- und Verbrauchsstichproben (EVS) der Jahre 1998, 2003 und 2008 geschätzt. Getrennt für Single- und Paarhaushalte werden Eigen- und Kreuzpreiselastizitäten berechnet, mit denen die Auswirkungen der EEG-Umlage simuliert werden. Die EEG-Umlage wirkt wie eine Stromsteuer und führte zwischen 2008 und 2013 zu einer Steigerung des Strompreises für die Haushalte von im Schnitt 25,9%.
    Belastungswirkungen, Nachfrageeffekte, Arbeitsangebot, Aufkommenswirkungen und Wohlfahrtseffekte werden mit dem Nachfragesystem simuliert.

    Der Vortrag findet auf deutsch statt.

    Speaker
    Time
    12:30-13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 355
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