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25 April 2014

DIW Applied Micro Seminar Forward-looking Behavior and Stockpiling of Prescription Drugs

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Speaker
  • Prof. Niels Skipper, Aarhus University
  • Time
    13:15-14:45
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 210
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 165
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 264
    23 April 2014

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions The Effect of Early Universal Care on Objective Child Health Outcomes

    Time
    12:30 - 13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 610
    Contact(s)
    external
    Verena Lauber (University of Konstanz)
    9 April 2014

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Is it really all that bad? The impact of shortening high school tenure on grade repetitions and graduation rates

    (joint with Jan Marcus, DIW Berlin)
    In designing education systems, policy-makers face a trade-off between the provision of higher levels of schooling and earlier labour market entries. The G8-reform, a fundamental education reform in Germany, tackles this trade-off by increasing education efficiency: The time in high school is reduced by one year while the total number of instruction hours is left unchanged. As a first indicator of the overall effectiveness of this recent policy, we study its effect on grade repetitions and high school graduation rates. Employing administrative data on all pupils in Germany, we exploit both temporal and regional variations in the implementation of the reform. We show that the shortening of the high school track length has no impact on grade repetitions in lower grades, whereas they double for pupils in the final years before graduation. The large majority of students, however, completes high school earlier. We cannot find any reduction in graduation rates. The results are robust to various changes in model specifications. The results indicate that the reform's potential benefits for labour markets, pension schemes and fertility will be slightly attenuated due to increased repetition rates.

    Speaker
    Time
    12:30 - 13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 610
    12 March 2014

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Family pension benefits and household savings

    Child-raising pension benefits (Kindererziehungszeiten) in Germany are designed as a compensation for employment interruptions due to child-birth. These benefits increase the parent's (usually the mother's) pension wealth. In principle, this implies negative incentives for private savings.
    Based on the Income and Expenditure Survey (EVS), the impact of child-raising pension benefits on household savings shall be identified by exploiting the pension reform 1992 as a natural experiment. In this cluster seminar the research idea will be presented.

    Speaker
    Time
    12:30 - 13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 610
    26 February 2014

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions How far do criminals understand the criminal law? Evidence from French mandatory sentencing

    This paper studies the deterrent effect of a medium increase in the severity of sentences and documents how the understanding of the newly enacted law evolves in the criminal population. The empirical strategy exploits mandatory sentencing act against repeat offenders passed by the French parliament in August 2007. The law specifically targets offenders who did the same act twice. Nevertheless, it was mainly presented as a law against recidivists without further explanation. I use a unique dataset including individual level data reporting the outcome of all trials ended with a conviction in France. The identification strategy is based on timing of events framework and competing risk analysis. It exploits the fact that offenders sentenced before the law was passed differ by the type of their new offense and the time between the first conviction and the date of application of the law. The analysis shows a significant short term deterrent effect of the law which disappear after some months. It also shows that the short term effect also concerns crimes that were presented as targeted but were not effectively affected. After four months, new offenses of different type are not deterred while new offenses of similar type still are.

    Speaker
  • Arnaud Philippe
  • Time
    12:30-13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 610
    12 February 2014

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Labor supply under working hours constraints - Assessing the potential of a family working time benefit in Germany

    (joint with Kai-Uwe Müller and Katharina Wrohlich)
    The majority of empirical labor supply models used for policy evaluation assumes observed hours of work as revealed preferences of individuals or households. Economic actors maximize their utility by choosing among different bundles of income and leisure. By assumption their choice is not constrained by regulations, institutions, or insufficient labor demand. In this paper we evaluate the employment effects of a policy proposal for which restrictions on the choice of working hours are crucial by using a structural labor supply model with working hours constraints. The family working time benefit (FWTB) is targeted at couple households with young children and designed to improve the financial incentives for a more equal distribution of gainful employment and care or family duties among spouses. Conditional on both partners working around 30 hours per week (equal to 80% of a conventional full-time job) the (hypothetical) income difference to their full-time income is partially compensated. Although its employment effects would be rather small, we find that FWTB reaches its goal by reducing working hours for fathers and increasing them for mothers. The pure incentive effect on labor supply is roughly halved when accounting for working hours constraints. 

    Speaker
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 610
    7 February 2014

    DIW Applied Micro Seminar Social Insurance and Retirement: A Cross-Country Perspective

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    Speaker
  • Prof. Johanna Wallenius, Stockholm School of Economics
  • Time
    13:15-14:45
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 210
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 165
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 264
    29 January 2014

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Is Being Tough Helpful? Search Requirements, Sanction Threats and Time to Job Finding

    (joint with Patrick Arni)
    The enforcement of job search requirements is increasingly employed to determine the level of search effort provided by unemployment insurance recipients. We evaluate the impacts of this policy on the rate of job finding. Previous research on job search monitoring has focused on the effects of an imposed benefit sanction. By estimating the impacts of requirement policies and their anticipated enforcement, we analyze how monitoring affects search outcomes before a sanction event occurs. New Swiss administrative data sources allow us to match individual-level information on requirement setting, compliance behavior and enforcement policies. We estimate a multivariate duration model which we complement with quasi-experimental variation in our parameters of interest. Our preliminary results indicate that additional applications generated by a high-requirement policy do not directly translate into job search success. Search requirements rather seem to influence unemployment exit rates through changes in non-compliance behavior and sanction anticipation.

    Speaker
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 610
    15 January 2014

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Educational Choice against All the Odds - Personality Traits as a Tool Kit?

    Students from a non-academic background have a significant lower probability of receiving tertiary education than their peers from an academic background. This is true even in an educational system where higher education is free of charge and financial constraints play a rather small role. Many theoretical and empirical articles describe reasons for this inequality. While primary effects, as less educational input at home, and secondary effects, fewer financial resources, explain the lower attendance, few studies show the factors that lead to a successful transition into tertiary education. In this paper we examine students who enter college against all the odds. Holding parental background and cognitive ability constant, by applying a propensity score matching method, we show that personality traits explain college enrollment intentions. The results show that educational policies should not neglect students' non-cognitive skills, as these skills help explain how to close the educational gap. Our first preliminary results show that "openness to experience" increases students' intention to pursue a college degree.(joint with Frauke Peter)

    Speaker
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 610
    18 Dec 2013

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Transition to Parenthood and the Dynamic of Women´s Economic Dependency. A Comparison of Germany and Switzerland

    Speaker
  • Lena Liechti
  • Time
    12:30 - 13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 610
    4 Dec 2013

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions What happens if women disappear from the labor market? Occupational status of women at marriage in a modernizing society

    joint with Ineke Maas & Marco H.D. van Leeuwen

    The nineteenth and twentieth centuries are an especially interesting period to investigate women's status attainment in Western societies because interesting and partly contrary developments took place. First, women increasingly withdrew from the labor market after marriage, possibly as a consequence of increasing prosperity that allowed families to survive on only one (the male) income. Secondly girls increasingly participated in secondary education which should have given them more job opportunities. Thirdly, in part due to the early suffragette movement, notions on equal treatment of men and women gained ground. In view of these developments we will answer the following questions: How did the occupational status of women at marriage change over time, and how did it vary between regions? To what extent can regional and temporal variation in the occupational status of women at marriage be explained by (a) the decrease in women's labour force participation rates (b) the increase in schooling of girls and (c) the increase of gender equality notions?

    The data we use, the GENLIAS dataset is an excellent source to study status attainment at marriage over a long period of time. It includes all 19th and early 20th century marriage certificates of the Netherlands. The 911,602 marriage certificates that we analyze do not only contain information on the married persons, but also on their parents, ages and often their occupational titles. In addition the place of marriage is noted. These rich information allow us to employ a multi-level research design, where the theoretical processes are measured at the level of municipalities, and may vary yearly.

    Speaker
  • Wiebke Schulz (University of Bielefeld)
  • Time
    12:30 - 13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 610
    20 Nov 2013

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Employment and Wage Impacts of Social Security Contributions

    We present work in progress on evaluating the employment and wage effects of social security contributions (SSC). We propose to use an equilibrium job search model allowing for extensive and intensive employment reactions, with firms also changing wages. The model naturally generates adjustment dynamics. Using firm-level data on productivity will allow us to identify to what extent productive workers and productive firms sort positively - an estimate for which we believe tax policy must be taken into account. We include detailed information on corporate taxation. The direction and degree of sorting will also determine the distributional impacts of SSC policies across different individuals. We propose to use long-running matched employer-employee data from France and Germany to consider the impacts of large changes in SSC on employment and wages.

    Speaker
    Time
    12:30 - 13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 610
    6 Nov 2013

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Music or Sports - An empirical analysis of their differential effects on child development

    (joint with Charlotte Cabane and Michael Lechner)

    Previous studies on the effects of leisure activities on skill development do not discuss whether such activities are complements or substitutes. Comparing to which extent various extracurricular activities influence skill development brings us closer to understanding the formation of educational inequalities as well as the mechanisms behind skill production. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, our study compares the role of music and sports for the development of cognitive and non-cognitive skills during adolescence. We use parental taste as an instrumental variable to account for the non-random choice between these activities. Our preliminary findings suggest that music is better than sports for increasing adolescents' ambition and optimism about future success.

    Speaker
    Time
    12:30-13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 610
    17 July 2013

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Labor supply estimation with endogenous rationing. An application to the federal minimum wage in Germany

    This paper extends a standard static structural labor supply framework by taking labor demand constraints into account. Contrary to previous papers the rationing risk is not only determined by exogenous demand side factors, but also depends on the individual's productivity. The resulting labor supply elasticities from the extended framework differ from the unconstrained model. This approach is shown to be particularly useful for evaluating policy reforms that affect labor supply incentives and have direct consequences for labor costs. We apply the model to analyze the employment effects of a federal minimum wage in Germany as well as the impact of employer- vs. employee-oriented wage subsidies under a statutory minimum.

    Speaker
    Time
    12:30 - 13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 355
    21 June 2013

    DIW Applied Micro Seminar Offering Intensive Support to At-Risk High School Students
    A Program Evaluation of Pathways to Education

    The Pathways to Education Program is an intervention that was developed to encourage schooling among disadvantaged early high school students. The program adopts a multi-faceted approach, offering extensive tutoring, mentoring, and financial support, as well as easy access to student-parent workers who provide information and advice as needed on a wide range of issues. The program began in the 2001-2002 school year for transitioning Grade 8 students in two schools surrounding Regent Park, a large public housing project in downtown Toronto. Participation required parents and students to commit in writing to the program. This study presents the first evaluation of the pathways program using publicly available data.

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    Speaker
  • Philip Oreopoulos, University of Toronto
  • Time
    13:15-14:45
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 468
    19 June 2013

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Natural Disaster, Policy Disaster, Policy Action, and Mental Well-Being: The Case of Fukushima

    We study the impact of the Fukushima disaster on people's mental distress in another industrialized country, 5500 miles away. The meltdown significantly increased environmental concerns by 25% among the German population. Subsequent drastic policy action permanently shut down the oldest nuclear reactors, implemented the phase-out of the remaining ones, and proclaimed the transition to renewables. This energy policy turnaround was largely supported by the population and equalized the increase in mental distress. We fail to detect any significant long-term impact of Fukushima. However, we estimate that during the 3 months after the meltdown, Fukushima triggered external monetized health costs worth €250 per distressed citizen-particularly among risk averse women above 40.

    Authors
  • Asst. Prof. Dr. Nicolas R. Ziebarth, Cornell University
  • Time
    12:30 - 13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 355
    5 June 2013

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Education and time investment in children: Is Germany different?

    Parental investment in terms of money and time is considered to be crucial for a child's development. Research on childcare, which is mainly based on US data, agrees that education has a positive impact on maternal caring time, despite the fact that high earning prospects increase the incentives for labor market participation. Given differences in the family support and other aspect of family environment there is no reason to believe that these results apply to all other countries.
    This paper provides evidence for West Germany using the German Time Use Survey (GTUS). Comparable results show no significantly positive effect of college education on childcare time for mothers. This is in particular the case for university education. The highest secondary school degree, however, has a positive impact on childcare for mothers. Households with a university educated mother divide caring responsibilities differently. Their partners spend significantly more time caring, especially during the week. These mothers spend relatively more time caring on weekends and daycare is used more often. On weekends the father's university education has a positive impact on caring time, especially the time spend with the child and another adult. These results are strongly influenced by households with a child that is in pre-school age. Analyzing subcategories of childcare separately reveals that university educated mothers spend relatively less time on basic and recreational care, but more on educational care activities.

    The effects for West Germany are directly contrasted to four other OECD countries and East Germany. In France and East Germany, two areas with a relative high supply of public daycare, the effect of college education for mothers it is even negative on weekdays. In Spain, a typical Southern European country, it is only a little larger than in West Germany. In the Anglo-Saxon countries, UK and US, the marginal effect of education is relatively larger. Controlling for the partner's education shrinks the effect for the US. The partner's characteristic may consequently be one driving force behind the educational effects. The mother's college education has a positive effect on the father's caring time in all countries but the UK and East Germany.

    Speaker
  • Verena Lauber, Universität Konstanz
  • Time
    12:30 - 13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 355
    22 May 2013

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Estimating labour supply elasticity from bunching: Some issues

    Speaker
    Time
    12:30 - 13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 355
    3 May 2013

    DIW Applied Micro Seminar The Intergenerational Transfer of the Gender Gap in Labor Force Participation

    Abstract: In this paper we empirically investigate the intergenerational transfer of a gender gap in labor force participation. Specifically, we analyze the extent to which the family and the local community nurture the gender gap. We utilize extremely rich registry data that allows us to estimate the effect of gender on labor force participation in sibling fixed effects models, and study how the gender effect differs across family and neighborhood characteristics during childhood. The underlying idea is that genetic or hormonal differences contributing to gender differences in labor supply are independent of family and neighborhood characteristics. The results suggest that childhood environment plays a large role in explaining the gender differences in labor force participation.

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    Speaker
  • Mari Rege, Uni Stavanger, Norway
  • Time
    13:15-14:45
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 468
    24 April 2013

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Reducing binge drinking? The effect of a ban on late-night off-premise alcohol sales on alcohol-related hospital stays

    Excessive alcohol consumption among the youth is a major public health concern both in Germany and Europe. In March 2010 the German federal state of Baden-Württemberg banned the sale of alcoholic beverages between 10pm and 5am in off-premise outlets (e.g. petrol stations, supermarkets). We use monthly administrative data from a 70% random sample of all hospital admissions for the years 2007-2010 in order to evaluate the impact of this policy on alcohol-related hospitalizations. Applying a difference-in-difference approach, we find that the policy change reduces alcohol-related hospitalizations among teenagers and young adults by about 7-10%. (joint with Thomas Siedler)

    Speaker
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 355
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