Veranstaltungen

Bildung und Familie

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
5 Dec 2012

Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Health risks and insurance against work incapacity over the life-cycle

This paper proposes a structural life-cycle model to analyze the links between individuals' health, labor market participation, wealth accumulation, and early retirement. I rely on the framework of a dynamic programming discrete choice model which is estimated using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study. A sequential Expectation-Maximization algorithm is used to obtain good starting values for a subsequent full information maximum likelihood estimation. A policy analysis focuses on the early retirement option of the German statutory pension scheme which constitutes an insurance against work incapacity. I simulate scenarios where health shocks do or do not occur at different ages during the life-cycle for individuals with differing endowments at age 40. A comparison of expected consumption paths and net present values of expected life-cycle incomes between the scenarios sheds some light on health-related poverty risks and the magnitude of risks being uninsured by the German early retirement scheme. Furthermore, I investigate a counterfactual policy scenario where reductions on the pension benefits of early retirees are abolished for individuals who are in bad health.

Speaker
Time
12:30-13:30
Location
DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
Contact(s)
at DIW Berlin
Tel.: +49 30 89789 355
21 Nov 2012

Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Examining the Structure of Spatial Health Effects using Hierarchical Bayes Models

Abstract

This paper makes use of Hierarchical Bayes Models to model and estimate spatial health effects. We focus on Germany and combine rich individual-level household panel data with administrative county-level information to estimate spatial county-level health dependencies. As dependent variable, we use the generic, continuous, and quasi-objective SF12 health measure. Our findings reveal strong and highly significant spatial dependencies and clusters. The strong and systematic county-level impact is comparable to an age effect on health of up to 30 years. Even 20 years after the peaceful German reunification, we detect a clear spatial East-West health pattern that equals an age impact on health of up to 15 life years.

Speaker
  • joint work with Nicolas R. Ziebarth (Cornell University)
  • Time
    12:30-13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 355
    7 Nov 2012

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Liquidity Constraints and the Permanent Income Hypothesis: Pseudo Panel Estimation with German Consumption Survey Data

    Abstract:This paper empirically investigates the relevance of liquidity constraints and excess sensitivity in intertemporal household consumption. Using a pseudo panel that has been constructed on rich German consumption survey data, we estimate the consumption responses to permanent and transitory income shocks, as well as the presence of excess sensitivity to anticipated income changes. A switching regression approach with unknown sample separation is applied to identify the two regimes whether to be liquidity constrained or not. The results are used to test whether liquidity constraints affect the validity of the permanent income hypothesis. For households in the constrained regime, reactions to changes in transitory income are found to be significantly greater than for households in the unconstrained regime. Furthermore, we provide evidence for excess sensitivity to anticipated income changes for households in the constrained regime if total consumption, durable as well as non-durable, is considered.

    Time
    12:30-13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 355
    24 October 2012

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions The Economics of Information: How Job Information Centers affect Educational Choices and Labour Market Outcomes

    Speaker
    Time
    12:30 - 13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 355
    24 October 2012

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions The Economics of Information: How Job Information Centers affect Educational Choices and Labor Market Outcomes

    Abstract

    This paper exploits the effects of job information centers in West Germany on pupils' educational and occupational choices, as well as on their labor market outcomes in later life. This paper contributes to the very sparse literature on the impacts of the public provision of labor market related information. We exploit the fact that West Germany job information centers were introduced at different times in different places, and use a differences-in-differences approach to identify parameters with causal interpretation. Combining data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (GSOEP) with administrative data on the location and introduction of job information centers allows us to detect whether an individual could have benefited from the information service during their youth. The results suggest that individuals in counties with a job information center while they were in grades 8 and 9, choose more education, have more prestigious jobs and have higher wage incomes than pupils who did not have access to facilities.

    Speaker
  • joint work with Thomas Siedler (University of Hamburg)
  • Time
    12:30-13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 355
    18 July 2012

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Wage Mobility in East and West Germany

    This article studies long run patterns and explanations of wage mobility as a characteristic of regional labor markets. Using German administrative data we describe wage mobility since 1975 in West and since 1992 in East Germany. Wage mobility declined substantially in East Germany in the 1990s and moderately in East and West Germany since the late 1990s. Therefore, wage mobility does not balance recent increases in cross-sectional wage inequality. We apply RIF regression based decompositions to measure the role of factors associated with these mobility changes. Increasing job stability plays an important role in the East German mobility decline.
    Link: http://ftp.iza.org/dp6246.pdf

     

    Authors
  • Prof. Dr. Regina T. Riphahn (LMU Munich)
  • Time
    12:30 - 13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    4 July 2012

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions The treatment effect of attending a high-quality school and the influence of unobservables

    This paper studies the effect of attending a high-quality middle school on subsequent educational outcomes. The analysis is based on data from the German socio-economic household panel in which we observe children when they make their secondary school decisions (in the age between 10-12) and later when they self-report on their intentions with regard to their further educational pathway (in the age of 16-17). To identify the treatment effect, we use a regression-control framework as well as an instrumental variable approach (based on local supply of schools). In a second step, we carefully examine the influence of unobservable characteristics in both methods using the new technique proposed by Altonji, Elder and Taber (2005). Our findings suggest that unobservable characteristics are indeed crucial to the validity of the research design. While we find large positive and significant effects of attending a high-quality school, we cannot rule out that the estimates are not in fact driven by selection on unobservables.

    Speaker
    Time
    12:30-13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 308
    6 June 2012

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Effects of introducing a general interest barrier - Evidence from the German corporate tax reform 2008

    In this study we investigate the impact of the thin capitalization rule (TCR) introduced in Germany in 2008 on firms; capital structure, investment and profitability. Since all firms are better off by avoiding the TCR, this means analyzing firms; behavior to avoid the TCR. The identification of the causal effects is based on the escape clauses in the regulation using a difference-in-difference approach. Our results present evidence that firms strongly react (to the new regulation) in order to avoid the limited deductibility of interest expenses: They either decrease their debt ratio or split their assets to use the exemption limit. The latter is especially used by firms with an interest result around the exemption limit of the interest barrier. In general no negative investment effects are caused in the short run by the TCR. This suggests that a part of the firms is able to substitute equity for debt at low costs or expects to be able to circumvent the regulation. However, investment might also be fixed in the short-run for example due to long-lasting contracts. Moreover, our results suggest that the TCR is quite successful in broadening the tax base in the short-run.

    Speaker
    Time
    12:30-13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 308
    16 May 2012

    SOEP Brown Bag Seminar SOEP Brown Bag Seminar
    Day care (quality) and differences in child outcomes

    Studies in recent years show that universal child care has a beneficial impact on children‘s outcomes (e.g., Havnes/Mogstad 2009, 2011, Datta‐Gupta/Simonsen 2010, 2011). However evidence remains mixed on whether all types of day care attendance have a positive effect on children's development.  Some papers show that day care attendance can also negatively influence child outcomes: e.g. Seyda (2009) or Landvogit et al. (2007) examine if day care attendance increases children's likelihood to attend higher secondary education by accounting for full-time and part-time day care attendance. Both studies conclude that a longer duration decreases children's likelihood of higher secondary schooling. Yet, these studies investigate attendance vs. non‐attendance, or formal care vs. informal care, but day care "quantity" and day care quality are rarely differentiated.

    By combining data from the German Socio-Economic Panel study (SOEP) and administrative data on day care quality, this paper examines potential effects of duration of day care attendance as well as the underlying structural quality of day care institutions at the "Jugendamtsbezirk" (youth welfare office) level on changes in children's health or personality traits. If parents regard day care as an investment in the human capital of children, they were to prefer day care centers with "better" quality. Day care facilities vary in terms of structural quality, e.g. staff-child-ratio, group size, or education of day care teachers. Hence while it might be beneficial to attend a day care center, a longer stay at a facility with mediocre quality might have negative consequences.  This paper investigates in what way a child's duration of day care attendance and the quality of day care facilities influences differences in children's health or personality traits between age three and six. Preliminary results indicate that day care quality explains some of the variation in children's health and personality traits between age three and six.

    Speaker
    Time
    12:30 - 13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 344
    9 May 2012

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions The Generalized Roy Model and The Cost-Benefit Analysis of Social Programs

    The standard analysis of treatment eff ects only considers the gross benefi t of treatment and does not consider the cost as perceived by the agents or the surplus arising from participation in programs (the private subjective evaluation of the program). This paper extends the analysis of Heckman and Vytlacil (1999, 2005) to identify parameters measuring the costs and net gains of arising from participation in a program within the context of a generalized Roy model. The analysis does not require that the analyst observe the subjective cost of treatment. Instead, we use information derived from agent choices about participating in a program to infer the cost of treatment as perceived by the agent. We apply our methodology to the analysis of college choice and nd that variability in net gains from attending college is mainly due to variability in the cost associated with schooling.

    Speaker
  • Philipp Eisenhauer (ZEW Mannheim)
  • Time
    16:30-17:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 308
    11 April 2012

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Labor supply of mothers with young children: Validating a structural model using a natural experiment

    In this paper we estimate an intertemporal structural model of labor supply for mothers with young children. In order to validate the structural model, we make use of a recently introduced parental leave reform in Germany. We compare the behavioral predictions of the structural model under the reform (out-of-sample fit) to results based on an evaluation of the parental leave reform as a natural experiment. We show that the structural model predicts actual behavior reasonably well. Based on both methods we find that due to the new parental leave scheme, that pays higher benefits for a shorter period of time, labor supply of mothers in the first year after giving birth declines, however increases in the second year. The results differ by socio-economic characteristics. We find the strongest effects for low-income mothers, who have a significantly higher probability to return to work two years after giving birth than under the old parental leave scheme.

    Speaker
    Time
    12:00-13:00
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 308
    3 April 2012

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Effects of changes in student composition on teacher mobility. Evidence from the admission reform

    This paper examines teacher job mobility using matcher employee-employer panel data from Stockholm municipality upper secondary schools. I utilize the exogenous change in upper secondary school admission which led to the sharp reshuffling of students within the municipality. This quasi experimental set up provides a unique opportunity to investigate the relationship between changes in student attributes and changes in teacher quality and turnover, which are not confounded with changes in school or neighborhood characteristics. Comparison of ordinary least squares and difference-in-differences estimates suggest that the former ones are severely biased and could provide a highly misleading, from policy perspective, conclusions. The causal estimates indicate that schools that experience upward shocks in student quality are more successful in retaining teachers, in particular, these that are more experienced and of high cognitive skills. Furthermore, I do find significant heterogeneity in the impact of minorities and principals compensatory behavior towards teachers. Nonetheless, the results suggest that student characteristics are endogenous to teacher turnover decisions.

    Speaker
  • Krzysztof Karbownik (Uppsala University)
  • Time
    12:30-13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 308
    21 March 2012

    Berlin Lunchtime Meeting Bildungssystem in Deutschland: Die langfristigen Effekte der Schulwahl auf Bildungsabschlüsse und auf Löhne

    Vortrag: Prof. Christian Dustmann, PhD. | University College London
    Kommentar: Martin Spiewak
    | DIE ZEIT
    Moderation: Prof. Dr. C. Katharina Spieß | DIW Berlin 

    In Zeiten zunehmender sozialer Ungleichheit in Deutschland wird der frühen Selektion der Schulkinder im Alter von 10 Jahren durch das dreigliedrige Schulsystem immer mehr der Vorwurf gemacht, sie trage zur Zementierung von Ungleichheit bei. Viele Statistiken verweisen auf den Zusammenhang von elterlicher Bildung und Schulwahl im Alter von 10 Jahren, einem Alter, in dem die Kinder noch keine eigenständigen Lebens- und Bildungsentscheidungen getroffen haben können. Eine neue Studie der Forscher Christian Dustmann und Uta Schoenberg vom University College London sowie Patrick Puhani von der Leibniz Universität Hannover zeigt nun, dass die Schulwahl im Alter von 10 Jahren keine langfristigen Effekte auf Schulabschlüsse und Löhne hat, weil das deutsche Schulsystem flexibel genug ist, um frühe Fehlentscheidungen zu späteren Zeitpunkten zu korrigieren.

    Prof. Christian Dustmann, PhD. | Professor an der Fakultät für Wirtschaftswissenschaften am University College London und Leiter des Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM). 1992 Promotion in Wirtschaftswissenschaften am European University Institute mit Habilitation an der Universität Bielefeld 1997. Dustmann ist Mitherausgeber der Zeitschriften Journal of Population Economics und Economic Journal. Research Fellow am Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR), London und am Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Zudem ist er wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter am Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS) und am Centre for Economic Performance (CEP), London. Zu seinen Hauptforschungsinteressen gehören Zusammenhänge zwischen Demographie und Wirtschaft und Arbeitsmarkttheorien. In diesen Forschungsbereichen hat er bereits zahlreiche Werke veröffentlicht.

    Martin Spiewak | Redakteur Wissen, DIE ZEIT. Nach dem Abitur leistete er seinen Zivildienst im Altersheim, studierte Geschichte und Spanisch in Hamburg und Madrid und Journalismus in München. Bevor er zum "Deutschen Allgemeinen Sonntagsblatt" ging, reiste er ein Jahr durch Mexiko und Kolumbien und arbeitete mit Straßenkindern. 1999 kam er zu der ZEIT ins Wissen. Bildung ist sein großes Thema. 2007 verbrachte er mehrere Monate an der Harvard University, um über Integration zu arbeiten.

    Prof. Dr. C. Katharina Spieß | Leiterin der Abteilung Bildungspolitik am DIW Berlin. Ihr Forschungs- und Publikationsschwerpunkt liegt im Bereich der Frühkindlichen Bildung.

    Die Veranstaltung findet in deutscher Sprache statt.

    Wir freuen uns auf Ihre Teilnahme an dieser Veranstaltung und bitten Sie, Ihre verbindliche Anmeldung via E-Mail an zu senden.

    Time
    12:00 - 13:00
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Schumpeter Saal) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 569
    29 February 2012

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions Risks and Returns to Educational Fields - A financial asset approach to vocational and academic education

    Applying a financial assets approach, we investigate the risks and returns to investments into different types of human capital. Even so the returns from investing in human capital have expensively been studied, little is known about the properties of the return to different types of human capital. Using information from the German Micro Census, we estimate the risk and returns to around 70 fields of study and differentiate between vocational and academic education. We find that there is a general trade-off between returns and earnings risk and human capital investments. Furthermore, we rank fields of education by their returns per unit of risk and find that academic education is not always superior to vocational education.

    Speaker
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 308
    18 January 2012

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions The Dynamics of Earnings in Germany: Evidence from Social Security Records

    We examine patterns of earnings volatility for male employees who are subject to statutory social security contributions in West Germany over the period 1986 - 2005. For this purpose, we analyse individual records covering highly reliable earnings biographies provided by the German Social Security Administration. We decompose earnings into permanent and transitory components and estimate parameters of the underlying variance-covariance structure of the earnings components model. This provides insights into the mechanics of earnings dynamics of the German labour market. We find evidence for increasing overall volatility which is predominantly driven by the permanent earnings component and therefore indicates increasing earnings inequality.

    Speaker
    Time
    12:30-13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 517
    23 Nov 2011

    Cluster-Seminar Public Finances and Living Conditions When can we trust population thresholds in regression discontinuity designs

    A recent literature uses variation just around legislative population thresholds to identify causal effects of institutional changes. We review the use of regression discontinuity designs using such thresholds. Our concern is threefold: (1) simultaneous exogenous (co-)treatment, (2) simultaneous endogenous choices and (3) manipulation and precise control over population measures. Revisiting the study by Egger and Koethenbuerger (2010), who analyse the relationship between council size and government spending, we present new evidence that these concerns matter for causal analysis. Our results suggest that empirical designs using population thresholds should be used with utmost care and confidence in the precise institutional setting.

    Speaker
  • Florian Ade
  • Time
    12:30 - 13:30
    Location
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Room 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Contact(s)
    at DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 517
    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8