Veranstaltungen

Arbeit und Beschäftigung

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25. Januar 2012

Seminar Immigration and structural change: Evidence from Post-war Germany
Leibniz Seminar für Arbeitsmarktforschung (BeNA)

Abstract: Does immigration accelerate sectoral change from low- to high-productivity sectors? This paper uses the mass displacement of ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe to West Germany after World War II as a natural experiment to study this question. A simple two-sector model of the economy, in which moving costs prevent the marginal product of labor to be equalized across sectors, predicts that immigration boosts output per worker by expanding the high-productivity sector, but decreases output per worker within a sector. Using German district-level data from before and after the war, we find strong empirical support for these predictions.

Mehr Informationen
Referent/-in
  • Sebastian Braun (IFW Kiel)
  • Zeit
    6.30 - 8.00 pm
    Ort
    Humboldt Universität Berlin Raum 21b Spandauer Str. 1 10178 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 158
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    extern
    , FU Berlin
    18. Januar 2012

    Cluster-Seminar Öffentliche Finanzen und Lebenslagen The Dynamics of Earnings in Germany: Evidence from Social Security Records

    We examine patterns of earnings volatility for male employees who are subject to statutory social security contributions in West Germany over the period 1986 - 2005. For this purpose, we analyse individual records covering highly reliable earnings biographies provided by the German Social Security Administration. We decompose earnings into permanent and transitory components and estimate parameters of the underlying variance-covariance structure of the earnings components model. This provides insights into the mechanics of earnings dynamics of the German labour market. We find evidence for increasing overall volatility which is predominantly driven by the permanent earnings component and therefore indicates increasing earnings inequality.

    Referent/-in
    Zeit
    12:30-13:30
    Ort
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Raum 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 517
    18. Januar 2012

    Seminar Do parties matter? Estimating the effect of political representation in multi-party systems
    Leibniz Seminar für Arbeitsmarktforschung (BeNA)

    Abstract: This paper estimates the causal effect of political representation in local governments on tax policy in municipalities under a proportional election system. The main challenge in estimating the causal effect of parties on policy is to isolate the effect of representation from underlying voter preferences and the selection effect of parties. We use an instrumental variable approach where close elections provide the exogenous variation in our measures of representation: seat shares and voting power. Using data from German municipalities our estimation results suggest that representation does matter. The effects are mostly small, but statistically significant. Somewhat surprisingly, the center-left party is found to lower the local taxes, whereas The Greens increase the property tax considerably. These effects remain robust to weighting voting power by the likelihood of coalitions and different definitions of close elections and the instrument.

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    Referent/-in
  • Ronny Freier (DIW Berlin)
  • Zeit
    6.30 - 8.00 pm
    Ort
    Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin Raum B002/3 Reichpietschufer 50 10785 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 158
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    extern
    , FU Berlin
    11. Januar 2012

    Seminar Rich Dad, Smart Dad: Decomposing the Intergenerational Transmission of Income
    Leibniz Seminar für Arbeitsmarktforschung (BeNA)

    Abstract: We construct a simple model, consistent with Becker and Tomes (1979), that decomposes the intergenerational income elasticity into the causal effect of financial resources, the mechanistic transmission of human capital, and the role that human capital plays in the determination of fathers' permanent incomes. We show how a particular set of instrumental variables could separately identify the money and human capital transmission effects. Using data from a thirtyfive percent sample of Swedish sons and their fathers, we show that only a minority of the intergenerational income elasticity can be plausibly attributed to the causal effect of fathers' financial resources.

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    Referent/-in
  • Matthew Lindquist (Stockholm University)
  • Zeit
    6.30 - 8.00 pm
    Ort
    DIW Berlin (Gustav-Schmoller-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Raum 3.3.002A Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 158
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    extern
    , FU Berlin
    6. Januar 2012

    DIW Applied Micro Seminar Changing Identity: Retiring from Unemployment

    Abstract: Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel from 1984-2009, we follow persons from their working life into their retirement years and find that, on average, employed people maintain their life satisfaction upon retirement, while long-term unemployed people report a substantial increase in their life satisfaction when they retire. These results are robust to controlling for changes in other life circumstances and suggest that retiring is associated with a switch in the relevant social norms that causes an increase in identity utility for the formerly unemployed. This is supportive of the idea that, by including identity in the utility function, results from the empirical life satisfaction literature can be reconciled with the economic theory of individual utility.

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    Referent/-in
  • Prof. Dr. Ronnie Schöb, FU Berlin
  • Zeit
    13:15-14:45
    Ort
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Raum 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 210
    14. Dez 2011

    Seminar Bombs, Brains, and Science: The Role of Human and Physical Capital for the Creation of Scientic Knowledge
    Leibniz Seminar für Arbeitsmarktforschung (BeNA)

    Abstract: This paper analyzes how human and physical capital affect the productivity of science departments. As inputs are often chosen on the basis of unobservable productivity factors and high quality scientists attract more funding for physical capital, I use two extensive shocks to identify the relative importance of human and physical capital. As a shock to physical capital I use department level destruction by Allied bombings during WWII. As human capital shock I use the dismissal of mostly Jewish scientists in Nazi Germany.

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    Referent/-in
  • Fabian Waldinger (University of Warwick)
  • Zeit
    6.30 - 8.00 pm
    Ort
    DIW Berlin (Gustav-Schmoller-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Raum 3.3.002A Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 158
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    extern
    , FU Berlin
    7. Dez 2011

    Seminar Estimating Dynamic Discrete Choice Models With Unobserved Heterogeneity: The Advantage of Bayesian Procedures
    Leibniz Seminar für Arbeitsmarktforschung (BeNA)

    Abstract: In this paper, we compare Bayesian estimation procedures with classical maximum likelihood estimation of dynamic discrete choice models. These models usually require a general specification of unobserved reference heterogeneity. We consider an application of a dynamic discrete choice model of female labor supply with three distinct states. We find that the Bayesian MCMC-estimator is about three times faster when considering a flexible specification of unobserved heterogeneity with multiple correlations. This allows us to apply non-parametric bootstrap methods to estimate the distribution of post-estimation outcomes within reasonable computation time.

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    Referent/-in
  • Daniel Kemptner (DIW Berlin)
  • Zeit
    6.30 - 8.00 pm
    Ort
    Berliner Büro des RWI Hessische Straße 10 10115 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 158
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    extern
    , FU Berlin
    30. Nov 2011

    Seminar Routine task intensity and employment changes in regional labor markets
    Leibniz Seminar für Arbeitsmarktforschung (BeNA)

    Abstract: Building upon concepts of the task and trade-in-tasks literature, we analyze the relationship between the initial routine task intensity of local labor markets and (i) subsequent regional occupational employment trends, (ii) regional employment in temporary help services (THS) and (iii) regional wage inequality. We argue that due to the specific nature of routine tasks, i.e. by being codifiable, easy to automate and easy to monitor, those activities are more prone to replacement by computer capital and thus (i) the displacement of routine task intensive jobs leads to a reallocation of tasks towards complementary non-routine tasks (either abstract or nonroutine manual). Moreover, those tasks are also more likely to being outsourced into THS employment (ii).

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    Referent/-in
  • Hanna Wielandt (HU Berlin) Jan Peter aus dem Moore (HU Berlin) Charlotte Senftleben (HU Berlin))
  • Zeit
    6.30 - 8.00 pm
    Ort
    Humboldt Universität Berlin Raum 21b Spandauer Str. 1 10178 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 158
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    extern
    , FU Berlin
    23. Nov 2011

    Seminar Equivalence scales and fixed costs of consumption
    Leibniz Seminar für Arbeitsmarktforschung (BeNA)

    Abstract: Different family types may have a fixed flow of consumption costs, related to subsistence needs. We use a survey method in order to identify and estimate such a fixed component of spending for different families. Our method involves making direct questions about the linkup between aggregate disposable family income and well-being for different family types. Conducting our survey in six countries, Germany, France, Cyprus, China, India and Botswana, we provide evidence that fixed costs of consumption are embedded in welfare evaluations of respondents.

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    Referent/-in
  • Carsten Schröder (Uni Kiel)
  • Zeit
    6.30 - 8.00 pm
    Ort
    Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin Raum B002/3 Reichpietschufer 50 10785 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 158
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    extern
    , FU Berlin
    16. Nov 2011

    Seminar Can employment programs reduce poverty and social instability? Experimental evidence from a Ugandan aid program
    Leibniz Seminar für Arbeitsmarktforschung (BeNA)

    Abstract: Youth unemployment is widely considered a threat to development and to security. To reduce poverty and social instability in developing countries, aid programs commonly provide youth with inputs to boost self-employment or train for a job. Such programs are rooted in two theoretical premises, one economic and one socio-political. The first is that the poor have high potential returns to investments but are constrained from reaching those returns unaided. The second belief is that increased income and employment will reduce youth alienation, aggression, and the potential for political violence. We look for evidence of these claims using an experimental study of Uganda's largest employment program.

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    Referent/-in
  • Nathan Fiala (DIW Berlin)
  • Zeit
    6.30 - 8.00 pm
    Ort
    Berliner Büro des RWI Hessische Straße 10 10115 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 158
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    extern
    , FU Berlin
    16. Nov 2011

    SOEP Brown Bag Seminar Soziale Ungleichheiten in der beruflichen Weiterbildung

    Wer nimmt wie viel an Weiterbildung teil und wer eher nicht? Diese zentralen Fragestellungen der Weiterbildungsforschung sind umso bedeutender, je mehr das Postulat des Lebenslangen Lernens propagiert wird. Der Vortrag versucht eine synthetische Perspektive zur Erklärung der Teilnahme an beruflicher Weiterbildung im Lichte verschiedener bildungsökonomischer und -soziologischer Theorien einzunehmen. Anhand der Weiterbildungsdaten der SOEP-Erhebungswellen 1989, 1993, 2000, 2004 und 2008 werden zunächst die Entwicklung der Teilnahme an beruflicher Weiterbildung und mögliche Erklärungsfaktoren, die diese beeinflussen, diskutiert. Dazu gehören u.a. das Alter, der Bildungshintergrund, das Geschlecht und die damit verbundene Frage nach der Kinderbetreuung, der Migrationshintergrund, die Branchen- und die Milieuzugehörigkeit. Unter Berücksichtigung des Beziehungsgeflechts der erklärenden Indikatoren soll zudem beantwortet werden, welche Faktoren einen maßgeblichen Einfluss auf das Weiterbildungsverhalten haben sowie welche Determinanten die Weiterbildungsteilnahme innerhalb verschiedener Teilarbeitsmärkte und Branchensegmenten beeinflussen.

    Referent/-in
  • Alexander Yendell, Universität Münster
  • Zeit
    12:30 - 13:30
    Ort
    DIW Berlin (Gustav-Schmoller-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Raum 3.3.002A Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 308
    9. Nov 2011

    Seminar Bye Bye, G.I. - The Impact of the U.S. Military Drawdown on Local German Labor Markets
    Leibniz Seminar für Arbeitsmarktforschung (BeNA)

    Abstract: What is the impact of a local negative demand shock on local labor markets? We exploit the unique natural experiment provided by the drawdown of U.S. Military Forces in West Germany after the end of the Cold War to investigate this question. We find persistent negative effects of the reduction in the U.S. Forces on private sector employment growth, with considerable heterogeneity by age and education groups, occupations and sectors. In addition, the U.S. Forces reduction resulted in a drop in the net balance of in-migration versus out-migration in affected regions. Consistent with this finding, wages and unemployment were much less affected.

    Mehr Informationen
    Referent/-in
  • Jan Peter aus dem Moore (HU Berlin) Alexandra Spitz-Oener (HU Berlin, IAB, CASE, IZA)
  • Zeit
    6.30 - 8.00 pm
    Ort
    DIW Berlin (Gustav-Schmoller-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Raum 3.3.002A Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 158
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    extern
    , FU Berlin
    2. Nov 2011

    Seminar The Economic Impact of Social Ties: Evidence from German Reunification
    Leibniz Seminar für Arbeitsmarktforschung (BeNA)

    Abstract: We use the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 to show that personal relationships which individuals maintain for non-economic reasons can be an important determinant of regional economic growth. We show that West German households who have social ties to East Germany in 1989 experience a persistent rise in their personal incomes after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Moreover, the presence of these households significantly affects economic performance at the regional level: it increases the returns to entrepreneurial activity, the share of households who become entrepreneurs, and the likelihood that firms based within a given West German region invest in East Germany.

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    Referent/-in
  • Konrad B. Burchardi (IIES Stockholm), joint with Tarek Alexander Hassan
  • Zeit
    6.30 - 8.00 pm
    Ort
    Humboldt Universität Berlin Raum 21b Spandauer Str. 1 10178 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 158
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    extern
    , FU Berlin
    26. Oktober 2011

    Seminar The incidence of tax structure on wages
    Leibniz Seminar für Arbeitsmarktforschung (BeNA)

    Abstract: The incidence of payroll and income tax and progressivity on wages is a recurring topic of debate in economic research and policy debate alike. Building on a detailed tax and transfer model (STSM) for Germany based on the GSOEP 2002 through 2008 I simulate empirical payroll, income and overall tax burden rates to test the competing predictions of non-competitive and competitive labor market models. Following the strategy outlined by Gruber & Saez (2002) potentially endogenous tax rates are instrumented by aging all income-relevant variables a year ahead and apply the tax code of that year.

    Mehr Informationen
    Referent/-in
  • Pia Rattenhuber (DIW Berlin)
  • Zeit
    6.30 - 8.00 pm
    Ort
    Berliner Büro des RWI Hessische Straße 10 10115 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 158
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    extern
    , FU Berlin
    19. Oktober 2011

    Seminar Audit Risk and Rent Extraction: Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation in Brazil
    Leibniz Seminar für Arbeitsmarktforschung (BeNA)

    Short Biography: Stephan Litschig is an Assistant Professor of Economics at Universitat Pompeu Fabra. He received his Ph.D. in 2008 at Columbia University. His research interests are Development Economics, Public Economics, Political Economy, and Microeconometrics.

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    Referent/-in
  • Stephan Litschig (Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona)
  • Zeit
    6.30 - 8.00 pm
    Ort
    DIW Berlin (Gustav-Schmoller-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Raum 3.3.002A Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 158
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    extern
    , FU Berlin
    19. Oktober 2011

    SOEP Brown Bag Seminar SOEP Brown Bag Seminar
    Parenthood, maternal labour market return, and gender inequality in housework: A comparison of different parental leave contexts

    Pia Schober (University of Cambridge)

    This paper investigates the effect of the timing and extent of mothers' labour market return after a birth on couples' division of housework in Britain and West-Germany. This improves our understanding of how parenthood gives rise to a trend towards a more traditional division of housework in couples. By comparing Britain and West-Germany with their different parental leave policies and observing several policy reforms in each country over time, this study provides new evidence how contextual variations in parental leave policies may impact on the division of housework in couples.

    Methodologically, this research extends the literature by applying multilevel multiprocess models to reduce the risk of unobserved heterogeneity biasing estimates of interrelated decisions after repeated life-course events. I estimate simultaneously the timing and extent of mothers' labour market return, the likelihood of having another child, and the time women and men in couples allocate to housework in the years following a first or second birth. The empirical analysis is based on data from the British Household Panel Survey (1991-2008) and the German Socio-Economic Panel (1985-2009).

    The results suggest that returning to the labour market full-time work is more effective than short leave durations in reducing the trend towards a more traditional division of housework in couples. Unobserved characteristics, such as work and family orientations, account for most of the association of housework time with the length of mothers' employment interruption and significantly weaken the association with women's full-time labour market return, especially in Britain. Parental leave policy reforms in both countries are associated with the division of housework only through their impact on the extent and timing of women's return to work. In line with theory, I find some evidence of a stronger association of women's quick and full-time labour market return with lower housework time for women in Britain than in West-Germany.

    Zeit
    12:30 - 13:30
    Ort
    DIW Berlin (Gustav-Schmoller-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Raum 3.3.002A Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 308
    12. Oktober 2011

    Cluster-Seminar Öffentliche Finanzen und Lebenslagen Stop Smoking, Your Paycheck Will Thank You! Wage Effects from Smoking Cessation

    Silke Anger (DIW Berlin / SOEP) 

    A growing body of literature has investigated the wage penalty attached to smoking. Little research, in contrast, has been done on the wage effects of smoking cessation. Using survey panel data from Germany, we study the relative earnings of smokers and former smokers over an extended period of time. We control for selection into smoking by imposing smoking initiation as the common initial condition and exclusively focusing on ever smokers, i.e. smokers and former smokers. Although we do not find evidence for an average wage premium of smoking cessation, our estimates point to heterogeneous causal effects. Individuals who did not smoke very long or who quit many years ago do appear to benefit in their earnings from quitting smoking. The prospect of a higher paycheck for short-time smokers and long-term quitters provides an additional incentive to smokers to quit smoking, an argument health authorities may want to utilize in public smoking cessation campaigns.

    Referent/-in
    Zeit
    12:30 - 13:30
    Ort
    DIW Berlin (Eleanor-Dulles-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Raum 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 517
    5. Oktober 2011

    SOEP Brown Bag Seminar SOEP Brown Bag Seminar
    Does job loss make you smoke and gain weight?

    Jan Marcus (DIW Berlin / SOEP) 

    This paper estimates the effect of involuntary job loss on smoking behavior and body weight. For this purpose, I apply a regression-adjusted semiparametric difference-in-difference matching strategy. This strategy is robust against selection on observables and against selection on unobservables with time invariant effects. I find smoker and nonsmoker reacting to job loss with changing health behaviors. Former nonsmoker are more likely to start smoking, while smoker tend to increase body weight but do not intensify smoking. These findings are robust over various matching specifications and different choices of the conditioning variables. Further analyses indicate treatment effect heterogeneity, with particular strong effects for young individuals, migrants and the low educated.

    Zeit
    12:30 - 13:30
    Ort
    DIW Berlin (Gustav-Schmoller-Raum) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Raum 3.3.002A Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 308
    12. Sept 2011

    Berlin Lunchtime Meeting The Gender Pay Gap in the US: Going, Going, ..., But Not Gone

    Chair: Elke Holst
    Introduction: Anne Busch

    Professor Blau will describe trends in the gender pay gap in the United States in an international perspective, particularly the important gains in recent decades. She will consider fundamental explanations for the gender pay gap and use these explanations to understand the trends. Among the questions that she will consider are: Has discrimination against women in the US and other advanced countries declined? Does it still exist? What role do improvements in women's qualifications play in the reduction in the gender pay gap? Are there broad market-wide trends that help to explain the decrease? In particular, have trends in the demand for labor favored women relative to men? Why is the gender pay gap in the United States larger than in many other economically advanced countries? What role do government policies play in reducing the gender pay gap?

    Prof. Francine D. Blau, Frances Perkins Professor of Industrial and Labor Relations and Professor of Economics at Cornell University/USA, also DIW Research Professor, Research Associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research, and a Research Fellow of IZA and CESIfo in Germany. She has written widely on gender issues, wage inequality, immigration, and international comparisons of labor market outcomes. In 2010 in Germany, the IZA Prize for outstanding academic achievement in the field of labor economics; she was the first woman to receive this prestigious award. Professor Blau has served as President of the Society of Labor Economists and the Labor and Employment Relations Association (formerly the Industrial Relations Research Association), Vice President of the American Economic Association (AEA), President of the Midwest Economics Association, and Chair of the AEA Committee on the Status of Women in the Economics Profession.

    Anne Busch: DIW Berlin and Berlin Graduate School of Social Sciences at Humboldt Universität zu Berlin.

    PD Dr. Elke Holst: Research Director Gender Studies, DIW Berlin.

    Registration is required. Please send an email to: .

    We look forward to your participation.

    Referent/-in
  • Prof. Francine D. Blau, Ph.D

  • Zeit
    12.00 - 13.00 followed by a buffet lunch
    Ort
    DIW Berlin (Schumpeter Saal) DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 569
    4. August 2011

    Seminar The Gift of Time
    Leibniz Seminar für Arbeitsmarktforschung (BeNA)

    Abstract: How would people spend time if confronted by permanent declines in market work? We identify preferences off exogenous cuts in legislated standard hours that raised employers' overtime costs in Japan around 1990 and Korea in the early 2000s. Using time-diaries from before and after these shocks, we predict the likelihood that an individual would have been affected by the reform. 

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    Referent/-in
  • Daniel Hamermesh (University of Texas at Austin and Maastricht University)
  • Zeit
    2:15 p.m.
    Ort
    Humboldt Universität Berlin Room 125 Spandauer Str. 1 10178 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    extern
    , HU Berlin
    , HU Berlin
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