Japan's Integration into the World Economy in the 1990s

Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung 4 / 2001, S. 475-488

Jörn Kleinert

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In this study, indicators such as trade openness, intra-industry trade intensity, Feldstein-Horioka coefficients, royalties and license fee flows and outward production ratios are used to measure Japan’s integration into the global economy in the 1990s. Among the OECD countries, Japan’s integration level is at the lower end. However, contrary to the early 1980s, the level and structure of Japanese international economic relationships in the 1990s have been similar to those of other OECD countries. This holds for trade as well as for capital and knowledge flows, and can be found on all levels of aggregation: in company data as well as on sectoral or on an economy-wide level. The progress in globalization which had been made in the 1980s, has been consolidated but not expanded much in the 1990s.