Direkt zum Inhalt

Socioeconomic Differences in SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Vaccination in Germany: A Seroepidemiological Study After One Year of COVID-19 Vaccination Campaign

Referierte Aufsätze Web of Science

Susanne Bartig, Florian Beese, Benjamin Wachtler, Markus M. Grabka, Elisabetta Mercuri, Lorenz Schmid, Nora Katharina Schmid-Küpke, Madlen Schranz, Laura Goßner, Wenke Niehues, Sabine Zinn, Christina Poethko-Müller, Lars Schaade, Claudia Hövener, Antje Gößwald, Jens Hoebel

In: International Journal of Public Health 68 (2023), 1606152, 9 S.


Objective: To evaluate the socioeconomic patterns of SARS-CoV-2 antigen contacts through infection, vaccination or both (“hybrid immunity”) after 1 year of vaccination campaign.Methods: Data were derived from the German seroepidemiological Corona Monitoring Nationwide study (RKI-SOEP-2; n = 10,448; November 2021–February 2022). Combining serological and self-report data, we estimated adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) of SARS-CoV-2 infection, COVID-19 vaccination, basic immunization (at least two SARS-CoV-2 antigen contacts through vaccination and/or infection), and three antigen contacts by education and income.Results: Low-education groups had 1.35-times (95% CI 1.01–1.82) the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to high-education groups. COVID-19 vaccination (at least one dose) and basic immunization decreased with lower education and income. Low-education and low-income groups were less likely to have had at least three antigen contacts (PR low vs. high education: 0.74, 95% CI 0.65–0.84; PR low vs. high income: 0.66, 95% CI 0.57–0.77).Conclusion: The results suggest a lower level of protection against severe COVID-19 for individuals from low and medium socioeconomic groups. Pandemic response and vaccination campaigns should address the specific needs and barriers of these groups.

Sabine Zinn

Vice Director SOEP and Head of the Division Survey Methodology and Management in the German Socio-Economic Panel study Department

Markus M. Grabka

Board of Directors SOEP & Acting Division Head in the German Socio-Economic Panel study Department

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, vaccination, socioeconomic position, seroepidemiology, RKI-SOEP-2

Supplementary Material