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Power Sector Effects of Alternative Options for De-fossilizing Heavy-duty Vehicles - Go Electric, and Charge Smartly

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Carlos Gaete-Morales, Julius Jöhrens, Florian Heining, Wolf-Peter Schill

In: Cell Reports Sustainability [im Ersch.], 100123

Abstract

Various options are discussed to de-fossilize heavy-duty vehicles, including battery-electric vehicles (BEVs), electric road systems (ERS), and indirect electrification via hydrogen fuel cells or e-fuels. We investigate their power sector implications in future scenarios of Germany, with high renewable energy shares, using an open- source capacity expansion model and route-based truck traffic data. Power sector costs are the lowest for flexibly charged BEVs that also carry out vehicle-to-grid operations and the highest for e-fuels. If BEVs and ERS-BEVs are not optimally charged, power sector costs increase but are still substantially lower than in scenarios with hydrogen or e-fuels. This is because indirect electrification is less energy efficient, which out- weighs potential flexibility benefits. BEVs and ERS-BEVs favor solar photovoltaic energy, while hydrogen and e-fuels favor wind power and increase fossil electricity generation. Results remain qualitatively robust in sensitivity analyses.

Wolf-Peter Schill

Head of the research area „Transformation of the Energy Economy“ in the Energy, Transportation, Environment Department



Keywords: Electric trucks, battery-electric vehicles, catenary, hydrogen, fuel cell electric vehicles, e-fuels, power sector flexibility, power sector modeling
DOI:
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crsus.2024.100123

Supplemental Information
https://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S2949790624001964-mmc1.pdf
https://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S2949790624001964-mmc2.pdf

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