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Options for Importing Green Hydrogen into Germany by 2030: Transportation Routes, Country Assessments and Implementation Requirements ; Analysis

Externe Monographien

Frithjof Staiß, Jörg Adolf, Florian Ausfelder, Christoph Erdmann, Manfred Fischedick, Christopher Hebling, Thomas Jordan, Gernot Klepper, Thorsten Müller, Regina Palkovits, Witold-Roger Poganietz, Wolf-Peter Schill, Maike Schmidt, Cyril Stephanos, Philipp Stöcker, Ulrich Wagner, Kirsten Westphal, Sven Wurbs

München: acatech, 2024, 134 S.
(Series on Energy Systems of the Future)

Abstract

Whether or not Germany can be carbon-neutral by 2045 will also depend on whether hydrogen can be successfully utilised. The ramp-up of a green hydrogen economy which includes a substantial, industrial-scale supply of hydrogen by 2030 is an ambitious goal. The strong rise in the demand for green hydrogen and its synthesis products by industry (e.g. steel, chemical and glass industries), transport (shipping, heavy goods transport and aviation in particular) as well as the energy industry (e.g. in power plants and as a storage medium) expected between now and 2030 can only be met if the market ramp-up is successful. This analysis focuses on how hydrogen and its downstream synthesis products can be imported by Germany. It follows a terminal-to-terminal approach which analyses the transport options and routes – from the export terminal in the country of origin to the provision of the products at the import terminal in Germany. The way in which the hydrogen is produced is not relevant in this context. Nevertheless, the working group “Hydrogen Economy 2030” has decided to focus on green hydrogen1 in order to stress its relevance for the transformation of the energy system and the attainment of climate neutrality.According to the scenarios for climate neutrality in 2045, the domestic demand for hydrogen and its synthesis products is estimated to be between 45 and 100 terawatt hours by 2030. This demand is expected to increase sharply by 2045, reaching 400 to 700 terawatt hours in most scenarios.2 Part of this volume will probably be produced in Germany, with additional substantial imports from other countries within – and probably also outside of – the EU. This analysis shows that the volume of hydrogen imports expected to be required by 2030 can be met in principle, provided that effective action is taken swiftly to lay the foundations in the form of infrastructure, regulatory and business frameworks.

Wolf-Peter Schill

Head of the research area „Transformation of the Energy Economy“ in the Energy, Transportation, Environment Department

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