Versions / DOI

Citation of the various SOEP versions

Digital Object Identifiers (DOI)

The need for replicability of findings makes it necessary to be able to identify and cite the particular SOEP data used in research. One way of doing this is through the system of Digital Object Identifiers (DOI), which is already being used for numerous publications. It is also well-suited for research data, and is therefore now being used for the SOEP data as well.

Digital identifiers provide a form of permanent identification for digital objects and thus guarantee that they can be found again on the Internet. They are a basic requirement for citing and finding research data on the Internet, even when the location (URL) has changed. A series of metadata are linked with each DOI (defined in the "metadata schema") in order to guarantee improved description and recognition of the data.

The SOEP RDC, as a publication agent, will be assigned the prefix 5684 in each DOI registered via da|ra. It is important for SOEP users to know that this does not change anything about our proposed mode of citation for the SOEP data. Rather, this provides you with the additional possibility to add a unique DOI to your citations. We ask you to make regular use of this new possibility.

Because precise references to data sources are becoming increasingly important in the scientific research community, the SOEP group recommends citing the SOEP data as follows:

Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), data for years 1984-201x, version 3y, SOEP, 20xx, doi:10.5684/soep.v3y.
Sozio-oekonomisches Panel (SOEP), Daten für die Jahre 1984-201x, Version 3y, SOEP, 2020, doi:10.5684/soep.v3y.
Short Version:
SOEP v3y.


Additionally one of the following publications describing the SOEP should be referred to:


If you would like to cite a publication describing the Public Use File of the SOEP - hence the international distributed 95% version of the SOEP - please use:

  • Frick, Joachim. R., Stephen P. Jenkins, Dean R. Lillard, Oliver Lipps, and Mark Wooden. 2007. The Cross-National Equivalent File (CNEF) and its Member Country Household Panel Studies. Schmollers Jahrbuch 127 (4), 626-654.


If you would like to cite a publication describing PanelWhiz, a collection of Stata ado-files, please use:

  • Haisken-DeNew, John P., and Markus H. Hahn. 2010. PanelWhiz: Efficient Data Extraction of Complex Panel Data Sets - An Example Using the German SOEP. Schmollers Jahrbuch 130 (4), 643-654.