This proposal focuses on two key factors related to the interest among policymakers across Europe in extending working lives: the relationship of longer working with health and caring responsibilities. This proposal brings together expertise from four countries – Denmark, Germany, France and the UK – to shed new light on how longer working lives might affect the health and well-being of the older population, and how caring responsibilities may affect individuals’ ability to work for longer. A core focus of the work would be understanding differences in these effects across the population and the resulting impact on inequality. This proposal has three key strengths. First, the consortium brings together renowned public policy experts from four different countries, and would exploit significant differences in the policies in place in each country and over time, to shed light on the role of policies and institutions in determining how longer working lives affect health and care giving, and how the effects differ across groups. Second, the work would exploit currently under-utilised, comparable multidisciplinary data across these four countries to better understand the multi-faceted circumstances of the older populations and how they differ across countries. Third, we would use and improve existing detailed dynamic micro-simulation models for each country to help understand how the circumstances of the older population will evolve in each country and what effect alternative policy regimes could have.