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Strengthen national climate policy implementation: Comparative empirical learning & creating linkage to climate finance – SNAPFI

Completed Project


Climate Policy

Project Management

Heiner von Lüpke, DIW Berlin

Project Period

July 1, 2019 - December 31, 2023

Funded by

Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU)

In Cooperation With

Center for Sustainability Studies of Fundação Getulio Vargas (Brazil),
Energy and Resources Institute (India) in cooperation with Indian Institute of Technology Delhi,
Climate Change Center, Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia)
University of Cape Town (South Africa)

About Our Project

The project researches the implementation of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) in Brazil, Germany/EU, India, Indonesia and South Africa, by research-based policy advice and capacity building. The project will especially analyse policy and financial instruments that support the just transition to a climate-friendly pathway and that can contribute to the mobilization of private and public finance for climate friendly investments.

The SNAPFI Project’s target is to enable relevant policy makers in the developing target countries to better understand the effects of policy and finance instruments and therefore allow for efficient NDC implementation. The project also aims to enable policy makers from the national finance sectors as well as international finance institutions to develop policy instruments to support climate action in partner countries and allow international cooperation between relevant stakeholders.

The project started in July 2019 and has a duration of 4 years.

Our Annual Publications

The project findings are released annually in the form of seven publications including five country studies, one cross-country study and one synthesis report:

  • Country Studies: The project team elaborates five country studies per year (Brazil, India, Indonesia, South Africa and EU), each of which includes a policy overview for policy makers in the political and finance sectors of each country and focusses on key sectors such as energy, industry and land-use. The Country studies are discussed at national workshops with relevant stakeholders.
  • Cross-Country Study: The project team also elaborates one topic of common interest relevant to the interface of climate-finance and policies within an annual cross-country study and discusses results at international workshops.
  • Synthesis Report: The annual synthesis report discusses a relevant topic with input from each country to help advise policy decision makers and is discussed in an annual webinar with relevant stakeholders.



The project explores how international climate finance can support the implementation of NDCs in emerging economies and EU-Countries through comparative analyses and by providing a better understanding of the interface between finance and policy implementation. This enables decision-makers in the target regions to implement their NDCs through efficient and effective mitigation and adaption policies, supported by national and international financial instruments. The cooperation among five research institutes facilitates an effective implementation of the NDCs, provides space for increased ambition levels and stimulates private and public investments in the low-carbon and climate resilient economic transformation. The envisaged impact is an improved GHG reduction effect as well as a contribution to development policies in the five project countries.

This project is part of the International Climate Initiative (IKI). The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservationand Nuclear Safety (BMU) supports this initiative on the basis of a decision adopted by the German Bundestag. Find more information about the IKI here


Documents and Publications

International climate finance architecture. Enabling sectoral transitions in emerging economies? March 2024

In this report, we explore the experiences related to the use of financial instruments and policies to support sectoral transitions in developing countries. It aims at addressing the challenges for financing transitions in energy, industry, and infrastructure sectors alongside suitable types of finance instruments to overcome these hurdles.

The role of international climate finance for bridging the low carbon investment gap. (PDF, 3.14 MB) June 2023

This report synthesizes findings related to countries’ international climate finance needs and introduces nine principles to consider in the context of financing transition towards net zero emissions especially in developing and emerging economies. The explorative principles offer a starting point for understanding and defining finance and support needed to scale ambition and facilitate just transitions.

Exploring emerging norms of climate neutrality: implications for international climate cooperation and finance. March 2022

This report synthesizes findings related to climate neutrality as emerging norm and implications for international climate cooperation and the design of international climate finance.

The socio-economic impacts of COVID-19 and how to deploy ICF in the context of green stimulus packages (PDF, 1.36 MB). November 2020

This report synthesizes findings related to the socio-economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on emerging and developing economies, status of countries’ green stimulus packages, and implications for international climate finance to enhance such green elements in domestic recovery strategies.


The Synergy between Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation (PDF, 1.68 MB)


International Thematic Study on the Global Stocktake (PDF, 4.7 MB)

The Global stocktake (GST), as outlined in Article 14 of the Paris Agreement aims to take stock of the implementation of the Paris Agreement, its purpose and long-term goals. The outcomes of the GST are intended to inform the enhancement of NDCs, and to find innovative forms of international cooperation to enable climate action. This report aims to respond to the research question: How do we understand progress on mitigation and adaptation actions in five countries? How might such actions enable countries to shift to pathways to more sustainable development and how can such shifts be supported by consistent finance flows (Art 2.1c) and provision of finance (Art 9)? What might be the role of the global stocktake in strengthening national action and international cooperation?


International Climate Finance and Support to national climate policy processes in emerging markets (PDF, 7.63 MB)

This year’s international study analyses how international partners can contribute to climate policy processes in emerging markets, thereby facilitating the channelling of financial flows to low-GHG-emission and climate-resilient development, as described in Article 2.1.c of the Paris Agreement.

Videos to the study:

  • International Study Year 2 – Introduction (Video)
  • Literature review (Video)
  • Case study Indonesia (Video)
  • Case study South Africa (Video)
  • Case study China and Kenya (Video)
  • Project Overview (Video)


Transformational change towards low-carbon development in emerging economies: insights from international climate finance cases (PDF, 2.26 MB)

This report finds that the interaction between the domestic level and international climate finance is multi-faceted: interaction takes place in both directions, the results of programmes often depending on local circumstances and pre-conditions, albeit being influenced and often shaped by international influences.

TERI (2023). Financing Decarbonization of the Secondary Steel Sector in India: Towards an Enabling Environment. New Delhi, India: The Energy and Resources Institute

Heiner von Lüpke, Karsten Neuhoff, Catherine Marchewitz (2022). Bridges over troubled waters. Climate clubs, alliances, and partnerships as safeguards for effective international cooperation? (PDF, 5.21 MB)

Driven by the motivation to raise the ambition level of climate action and to foster the transformation of economies, current climate policy discourse revolves around various ways to improve cooperation between industrialized countries and emerging economies. In this context, multilateral, sectoral alliances play an important role for international goal setting and the convergence on standards, metrics, and
benchmarks. This paper provides new reflections on the institutionalization of climate cooperation for industry transformation. Specifically, we demonstrate the urgent need to understand what values, norms, and underlying principles drive a cooperation in order to draw conclusions on how to best institutionalize climate cooperation rules-in-use.

Transforming the finance sector with technical assistance

Case Study: China (PDF, 7.98 MB)

Case Study: Kenya (PDF, 4.82 MB)

National (regional) studies


Annelise Vendramini, Camila Yamahaki, Gustavo Velloso Breviglieri. Biofuels and Decarbonisation Credits in Brazil: An Analysis of the Legislative Process of Brazil's National Biofuel Policy ("RenovaBio") (PDF, 1.25 MB)


Annelise Vendramini, Camila Yamahaki, Gustavo Velloso Breviglieri. "Cabotage Navigation in Brazil: An Analysis of the Legislative Process of Statute No. 14,301/2022 (“BR do Mar”) Using Kingdon’s Multiple Streams Framework" (PDF, 7.12 MB)

This study investigates legislation in Brazil which aims to shift cargo away from roads in an effort to cut emissions from the transport sector. The transport sector is responsible for ca. 62% of greenhouse gas emissions in Brazil’s energy sector. Further, it relies heavily on cargo on roads. The study takes an in-depth look at the BR do Mar statute, analysing how the policy proposal changed over time in line with political events. The case shows that policymakers and civil society can boost the low-carbon transition by seizing political windows of opportunity.


Annelise Vendramini, Camila Yamahaki, Gustavo Velloso Breviglieri, Victoria Kang. Drivers of and barriers to capital market investments in low-carbon infrastructure in Brazil (PDF, 15.52 MB)

This year’s study from the Center for Sustainability Studies of Fundação Getulio Vargas identifies the main barriers to and drivers of capital market investment in low-carbon infrastructure in Brazil and explores possible measures that could help narrowing the infrastructure gap in the country.


Annelise Vendramini, Camila Yamahaki, Gustavo Velloso Breviglieri. Barriers to attracting direct and capital market investments for railway infrastructure in Brazil (PDF, 1.32 MB)

This report seeks to identify the barriers that must be overcome in order to unlock private investments for the railway sector in Brazil. The two main challenges examined in this study are barriers that hamper the attraction of domestic and foreign private companies to build and maintain railway infrastructure and/ or operate freight transport services as well as barriers that hinder the attraction of domestic and foreign investors to invest in railway projects and companies through the bond market in Brazil.


Heiner von Lüpke, Eros Nascimento, Charlotte Aebischer, Martha Bolanos, Thomas Webb (DIW Berlin). How does international climate finance interact with national policy processes? Evidence from public and private climate finance in the land use and forestry sectors of Brazil. (PDF, 1.2 MB)


Heiner von Lüpke, Catherine Marchewitz, Charlotte Aebischer, Mats Kröger (DIW Berlin). Steel decarbonization in emerging economies: What case for international climate finance and support? (PDF, 4.24 MB)

To reach the Paris Climate Agreement’s objective for net-zero CO2 emissions shortly after mid-century industry sectors such as steel are front and center. Though the decarbonization of the steel sector is gradually gaining traction in the political discourse, transition policy implementation is still at its early stages. This study exlores how international climate finance in combination with international cooperation and support options enable an industry transition toward climate neutrality.


Heiner von Lüpke, Charlotte Aebischer (DIW Berlin). International dimensions of industry decarbonization: Elements of international cooperation approaches (PDF, 12.81 MB)

Reflecting on the example of industry decarbonisation, the German Institute of Economic Research (DIW) investigates how international public climate finance (ICF) can promote global cooperation in the climate commons. DIW finds that reciprocity of contributions, along with the linking of ICF to political levels and the use of innovative ICF instruments are central. Focusing on the steel sector, the study underlines the need for common sustainability standards and opens the door for novel ICF instruments such as carbon contracts for difference.


Aleksandra Novikova (IKEM), Marina Olshanksaya (AGE), Mats Dunkel (IKEM), Rimantė Balsiūnaitė (AGE). Lessons learned for international climate policy from the programming, implementation, and monitoring of the European Structural and Investment Funds in EU Member States (PDF, 4.8 MB)

The report aims to draw lessons learned for international climate policy from the programming, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of the EU-level finance disbursed by two European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF) - the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and the Cohesion Fund (CF) in EU Member States. Lessons learned from European countries can help illustrate how long-term stable climate policy framework could be formed and financed


Shubhi Goel, Dorothy Ashmita Biswas, Soham Banerjee, Shailly Kedia. „Financing Low Carbon Transition in India’s MSME Sector“ (PDF, 6.6 MB)

Through the review of the existing structure, the study identifies major barriers faced by the sector to access finance for Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises (MSMEs). The study uses case studies of Gujarat and Maharashtra to have a more micro level understanding of the policies and instruments available to MSMEs at the state level.


Tamiksha Singh, Ritu Ahuja, Saumya Malhotra. Mobilizing the Private Sector for Developing Resilient Infrastructure in India (PDF, 9.47 MB)

This year’s study by the Energy and Resources Institute in cooperation with the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi assesses the barriers for private sector financing of climate resilient infrastructure at the national level. By recognising the global best practices for addressing these challenges they develop priority measures to enhance climate resilience of private sector infrastructure investment.


Tamiksha Singh, Ritu Ahuja, Jalpa Mishra, Saumya Malhotra. Transitioning India's steel and cement industries to low carbon pathways (PDF, 2.88 MB)

This report focuses on identifying the regulatory, capacity and market gaps existing for transitioning the Indian steel and cement industries to a low carbon pathway, and the impact this has on the availability of green finance for these industries. The aim of the report is to identify areas where international climate finance can step in to address the gaps, working along with the policy interventions, and have a transformative impact.



Djoko Santoso Abi Suroso, Niken Prilandita, Dhimas Bayu Anindito, Mulia Asri Hastari. Climate-Energy Governance Model in Indonesia (PDF, 0.95 MB)


Djoko Santoso Abi Suroso, Dadang Hilman, M.S. Fitriyanto, Novi Puspitasari, Farijzal Arrafisena. „Enabling Conditions and Advantages of Synergy between Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation to Stimulate Implementation of NDC“ (PDF, 5.8 MB)

This study aims to analyze the enabling conditions for synergy between climate change adaptation and mitigation in Indonesia to improve the sustainability of the actions and open up international climate finance (ICF) opportunities to stimulate the implementation of NDC.

Djoko Santoso Abi Suroso, Niken Prilandita, Dhimas Bayu Anindito, Mulia Asri Hastari . „Enhancing the Private Sector’s Roles in Climate-Energy Policies Towards the Indonesian NDC Target“ (PDF, 5.36 MB)

The study explores the role of the private sector in the new and renewable energy sector. As a comparison, the role of the private sector in the oil and gas and coal industry is also discussed. The study aims to analyse the public policy in the energy sector that facilitates the achievement of the NDC targets and transitioning into NZE by 2060 or sooner and to identify what are the possible roles for private sectors to help the government in achieving the targets.


Djoko S.A. Suroso, Dadang Hilman, Budhi Setiawan, Pradono, M.S. Fitriyanto, Novi Puspitasari, Mulia Asri Hastari. Climate change Adaptation in Indonesia: Reviews on Adaptation Governance, Metrics and Financing (PDF, 2.8 MB)

Djoko Suroso, Niken Prilandita, Dhimas Bayu Anindito, Arliza Nathania G. Hutagalung, Budhi Setiawan, Pradono, Dadang Hilman, M.S. Fitriyanto. Towards Climate Governance Model for the Indonesian energy Sector: Mapping on Actor Interaction (PDF, 9.08 MB)

Researchers from the Climate Change Center of Bandung Institute of Technology investigate in their study the current climate-energy governance model in Indonesia and the interactions between the prominent stakeholders that are involved in the Indonesian renewable energy sector.


Djoko Suroso, Niken Prilandita, Dadang Hilman, Dhimas Anindito, Budhi Setiawan, Pradono, M.S. Fitriyanto, Sita Primadevi. Strengthening the Indonesian climate governance in energy sector towards achieving the NDC target (PDF, 2.1 MB)

This study aims to explore the current climate change governance in Indonesia, particularly in the energy sector, as the initial step towards proposing an institutional arrangement towards achieving the NDC target. It gives a historical review on climate governance in Indonesia as well as a review on current climate governance starting from late 2014. The report shows an ideal model of climate change governance in Indonesia and gives a glance of Indonesian energy sector and the results of stakeholders and policy analysis.


Michael Boulle. The role of the Just Energy Transition Partnership in contribution to the implementation of South Africa's NDC: A new form of climate finance and international cooperation? (PDF, 0.76 MB)


Keen, S., Lorimer, E., Vincent, K. (2022): Finance for adaptation at the level of local government in South Africa. (PDF, 5.59 MB)

This study explores the topic of financing adaptation in South Africa, focusing on financing locally-led adaptation in municipal governments in SouthAfrica. The report comes against a backdrop of growing adaptation finance needs in developing countries. The importance of resourcing municipalities as key implementation actors - including through climate-proofing infrastructure, fostering resilience in vulnerable communities, and preparing for climate-related disasters - was underscored by the April and May 2022 floods and devastation in KwaZulu-Natal.


Harald Winkler, Samantha Keen, Andrew Marquard. Policy approaches to guide finance flows for more effective climate action in South Africa. (PDF, 6.11 MB)

SNAPFI’s research team at the University of Cape Town explores how financial and broader policies in South Africa can increase the scale and influence the direction of finance flows for more effective climate action. The study identifies a promising process of realignment of institutions around strategies, to send clearer signals on where finance is needed for both mitigation and adaptation.


Harald Winkler, Samantha Keen, Andrew Marquard. Climate finance to transform energy infrastructure as part of a just transition in South Africa (PDF, 2.76 MB)

This case study reflects on South Africa’s Just Transitions transaction (JTT), seeking to understand its architecture, the potential to catalyse changes in the complex set of challenges in the electricity sector, by funding accelerated phase-out of coal and a just transition in South Africa, with broader implications for international climate finance.



Camila Yamahaki, Gustavo Velloso Breviglieri, Annelise Vendramini from FGV. Amazon Sustainable Landscapes Program (PDF, 472.06 KB)

Camila Yamahaki, Gustavo Velloso Breviglieri, Annelise Vendramini from FGV. Amazon Fund (PDF, 0.54 MB)

Heiner von Lüpke, Nils May, Karsten Neuhoff from DIW Berlin. Climate finance interactions with national develo-pment & climate policy frameworks: Review of current research status (PDF, 0.58 MB)

Tamiksha Singh, Saumya Malhotra, Jalpa Mishra from TERI. KfW’s Support for India’s Green Energy Corridors. GCF Line of Credit for Solar Rooftop PV deployment in India (PDF, 0.99 MB)

Djoko S.A. Suroso, Budhi Setiawan, Pradono, Sita Primadevi, M.S. Fitriyanto from Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB). Cross-Country Study of Indonesia. Green Sukuk and REDD+ (PDF, 0.83 MB)

Samantha Keen, Harald Winkler from the University of Cape Town. Enhanced Direct Access finance: SANBI and the Adaptation Fund (PDF, 0.9 MB)

Samantha Keen, Harald Winkler from the University of Cape Town. Funding to set up the Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme (PDF, 0.85 MB)

Cor Marijs, Alessa Widmaier, Imad Ahmed from Vivid. Transformational Change (PDF, 0.78 MB)


Workshop "Decarbonization of Indian Secondary Steel Sector: Role of International Climate Finance’ on June 13, 2023

The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), in association with DIW Berlin, is undertaking a study titled ‘Decarbonization of Indian Secondary Steel Sector: Role of International Climate Finance’ to refine the understanding of the best-possible technologies available for adoption, the scope of international finance, and the technical, technological, financial, economic, and regulatory bottlenecks faced by the secondary steel sector in adopting low-caron production pathways. As a part of the study, TERI organized a consultation workshop on June 13, 2023, in New Delhi, to present preliminary findings and enhance future recommendations through the report. The workshop was attended by several stakeholders from industrial associations, the financial sector, as well as service providers. Bringing together these diverse stakeholder groups, the workshop provided a platform to develop a mutual understanding of issues relating to the availability and access to finance, and to explore how appropriate financial instruments could be co-designed and implemented to address the current bottlenecks.

Summary (PDF, 147.43 KB)


Webinar "The Just Energy Transition Partnership – South Africa" on September 27, 2023

On September 27, 2023, the SNAPFI research team at the University of Cape Town (UCT) hosted a public webinar, which aimed to present a paper critically analysing South Africa's Just Energy Transition Partnership (JETP) as a potential 'model' for countries in the Global South.  

Summary (PDF, 228.4 KB)
Webinar "How do Brazilian actors react to transnational policy influences in the land use and deforestation field? Evidence from public and private climate finance initiatives" on June 13, 2023
DIW Berlin has presented the findings of the last year national study, which provides a comparative overview of two types of international climate finance: one is of public character, implemented on official development assistance (ODA) basis, and a second type is of private nature, related to policy engagement by private investors. The presentation of the joint study of DIW Berlin and FGV elaborates on collaborative investor engagement with policymakers and highlights its drivers. 
Summary (PDF, 111.05 KB)
DIW Webinar presentation (PDF, 450.01 KB)

Workshop "The role of the Just Energy Transition Partnership in contributing to the implementation of South Africa’s NDC: A new form of climate finance and international cooperation?’ on May 8, 2023

The SNAPFI team at the University of Cape Town (UCT) convened a public workshop to present the preliminary findings of the in-country case study and gather reflections from participants on the process and progress of the Just Energy Transition Partnership (JETP) in South Africa. 

Workshop Summary (PDF, 48.31 KB)

Workshop "Accessing and Engaging on Local Adaptation Finance" in South Africa on February 27-28, 2023
To engage with local stakeholders on the topic of local access to adaptation finance Adaptation Network, the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI), and the SNAPFI Team at the University of Cape Town collaborated to organize an interactive two-day workshop in Cape Town. The workshop aimed to offer facilitated peer learning experience, knowledge exchange and share research findings. The workshop discussed experiences associated with accessing adaptation finance at the local level and gathered feedback relevant to SANBI’s development of funding proposals.

Webinar "Steel decarbonization in emerging economies: What case for international climate finance and support? on December 16, 2022 
The DIW Berlin study outlines an international climate cooperation framework to decarbonize the steel industry and analyzes potential financial instruments for transformational change. The webinar discusses the possibilities of implementing international carbon contracts for difference (CCfDs) in emerging economies in interplay with further policy objectives. Based on our findings, we recommend a change of cooperation modalities to enhance the effectiveness of international climate finance as a catalyst for mitigation actions and policies.
Summary (PDF, 115 KB)
Presentaion CCfDs (PDF, 0.82 MB)
International Webinar "The synergy of Climate Change Adaptation-Mitigation in Indonesia to Leverage Sustainable Finance" on October 21, 2022

The Climate Change Center of Bandung Institute of Technology (CCC-ITB) held an international webinar, which showed that the synergy practices of climate change adaptation and mitigation have started to be practiced, but still require solid regulations and policies to encourage implementation. Several funding opportunities for synergies are already available from the financial side. To leverage these synergies, utilizing several funding instruments, such as blended schemes or product structures, is necessary. These findings become essential input for the following adaptation study of CCC-ITB. 

Summary (PDF, 226.28 KB)

International Webinar "Enhancing the Private Sector’s Roles in Climate-Energy Policies Towards the Indonesian NDC Target" on October 11, 2022
The Climate Change Center-ITB in collaboration with DIW organized an international webinar, which aimed to share and elaborate information among key stakeholders regarding the connections of climate-related policies with the role of government and private sector in climate change mitigation from a renewable energy sector perspective to achieve the NDC and NZE targets. 
Summary (PDF, 129.35 KB)
South Africa’s Workshop on the UNFCCC Global Stocktake on September 2, 2022
The Department of Forestry, Fisheries and Environment (DFFE) convened a virtual special technical workshop on 2 September 2022 on the Global Stocktake (GST) under the Paris Agreement (PA), in collaboration with University of Cape Town (UCT). The aim of this virtual workshop was to facilitate discussion and sharing of views amongst constituencies, and stakeholders talking with the government and the national delegation to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its Paris Agreement, with a view to contributing further perspectives and inputs to the GST and South Africa’s engagement in the GST. 

Workshop Summary (PDF, 436.01 KB)

Roundtable dialogue Financing Low Carbon Transitions for India's MSME Sector' on June 14, 2022 by the Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), in association with, IKI, DIW Berlin, and BMUV, online

The roundtable discussion was organised as part of the 2022 study which aims to shed light on the implications for policy and praxis to mobilise MSMEs in India towards low carbon transitions.

There is a two-way relationship between climate change and MSMEs. On one hand, MSMEs contribute to climate change, and on the other, they are disproportionately vulnerable to risks posed by climate impacts. According to the latest biennial update report, the MSME sector in India is still widely using outdated technologies and processes, resulting in higher energy intensity (GOI 2021: 219). The concept of Low Carbon Transitions (LCTs) in the context of India can be derived from India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) which highlights that climate change mitigation activities such as renewables and energy efficiency can lead to energy security, reduced local pollution, and increased access to energy through distributed and decentralized forms of energy systems (GOI 2008).
According to a study by the International Finance Corporation (IFC), only 16 per cent of MSMEs in India are financed through formal banking systems and the credit gap for MSMEs in India is estimated to be about USD 240 billion (about INR 16.66 trillion) in 2018 (IFC 2018). This number depicts the sheer challenge of MSMEs who still struggle to get traditional finance in India and for whom climate finance remains elusive. Climate finance in India is channelled through formal public and private structures that have stringent rules and regulations. Apart from banking institutions, public finance, both national and international is channelled through processes such as union budgets, state budgets, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), National Adaptation Fund and through channels of the Green Climate Fund (GCF) and Global Environment Facility. When it comes to clean Energy Measures, Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) also play a crucial role in financial service delivery.

This study aims to bridge these gaps. Using the lens of climate finance, this study aims to shed light on implications for policy and praxis to drive and mobilize MSMEs in India towards low carbon transitions. The key research questions for the study and also key discussion points include:

·    What are the financial requirements/needs for India's MSME sector to decarbonize?
·    What are the institutional arrangements and coordination mechanisms for India's MSMEs for transitioning to low carbon practices?
·    To what extent can multi-stakeholder partnerships help in mobilizing funds for the MSME sector to decarbonize moving forward?
·    What are the convergences and divergences between national and state financial instruments specific to India's MSME sector?
·    What are the challenges and barriers that arise in the financial mechanisms for MSME to decarbonize in the future?

Workshop „Climate clubs or climate partnerships? How effective climate cooperation can succeed“ on May, 20th 2022
at DIW Berlin and online

The workshop held by DIW Berlin in a hybrid format addressed the topic of effective climate cooperation between industrialized countries and emerging economies. Proposals for cooperation structures related to climate clubs (such as by the German government), partnerships (for instance the Just Energy Transition Partnership with South Africa) and sectoral alliances (such as the Glasgow breakthrough alliances) are currently proliferating. Hence, the workshop sought to find answers to pertinent questions they raise. It provided a forum to discuss with researchers from international think tanks and policy actors - ahead of German G7 summit from 26 to 28 June 2022 - to offer input on how political attention and motivation could contribute effectively to a global momentum on climate action. The input presentation based on a background paper shared with participants before the workshop provided an overview and analysis of the three partnership approaches mentioned above. The subsequent four discussion rounds addressed questions as to how these initiatives can contribute to raising ambition levels, how they could support transitions to climate neutrality and how they are addressing carbon leakage and EU policies.

Workshop Summary (PDF, 209.23 KB)

Webinar “After COP26: The Roles of Climate Governance in Achieving Nationally Determined Contributions and Net Zero Emissions Targets of the Energy Sector in Indonesia” on 19th November, 2021

This webinar held by the Climate Change Center of Bandung Institute of Technology (CCC-ITB) is part of a series of outreach activities to disseminate the results of the studies up to Year-2. The dissemination was provided toward the findings of the National Study (NS), which focuses on climate change governance in the attempt on GHG emission reduction strategies in the energy sector, to be combined with the findings of the International Study (IS), which focuses on climate finance to support climate change.

Workshop Summary (PDF, 103.14 KB)

Video Documentation 

Webinar Mobilizing the private sector for developing resilient infrastracture in India on June 29th, 2021

India is a highly climate vulnerable country, with increasing frequency and intensity of climate related natural disasters, having significant adverse impact on the economy and development of the country. This vulnerability to climate events along with the vulnerability to slow onset climate change processes like sea level rise and desertification, necessitates an urgent prioritization of adaptation and resilience building.

This challenge further extends to building resilience in the infrastructure of developing economies. Infrastructure resilience, being a cross-sectoral issue, requires the participation of a range of economic actors – including the national and sub-national governments, development organizations, financial institutes, and most importantly – the private sector. However, the role of the private sector has been minimally leveraged in this area. Adapting and building resilience in infrastructure assets is necessary for the private sector, considering the evident impacts and physical risks of climate change related events on business activities.

With the context of these barriers, through this panel discussion, we seek to develop a better understanding of priority measures required to address these barriers and to plan a roadmap for enhancing private sector financing for building climate resilient infrastructure.

Webinar summary (PDF, 343.28 KB)

Workshop ‘Finance flows to support climate action in South Africa’ on June 7th, 2021


The SNAPFI research team at the University of Cape Town (UCT) hosted a workshop about climate finance and policy approaches to better understand how to increase flows of finance for climate action. The guiding question for the workshop, “What is needed to guide financial flows for more effective climate action in South Africa?” attracted 45 participants, primarily in the research community, climate justice and sustainable finance advocacy roles, some urban and community climate practitioners and from national departments for environment and the treasury.

Findings were presented from the SNAPFI-UCT team’s case study for the second year of the project, ‘Policy approaches to guide financial flows for more effective climate action in South Africa’. Guest speaker Aaron Atteridge (who led development the SEI Aid Atlas online climate finance tracking tool) presented analysis of international climate ‘financial flows’ to SA. Harald Winkler, lead for the UCT research, presented findings about policy levers for enhancing domestic investment in adaptation and mitigation efforts. The discussion ranged from the technical - coverage of accounting methodologies – to the ethical – the co-existence of support finance and fossil fuel subsidies. Participants shared information and resources; some continued their engagement after the workshop with National Treasury and civil society representative arranging another discussion about the draft Green Finance Taxonomy in South Africa. The Department of the Forestry and Fisheries and Environment reported that the workshop was useful, highlighting the relevance of “...linkages of theoretical vs practical contexts...policy development vs implementation coordination...”.

Workshop International Dimensions of Industry Decarbonization: Elements for International Cooperative Approaches on March 3rd, 2021

The workshop took place as part of a DIW-IKEM led study to address the topic of industry decarbonization, mainly focusing on its transnational implications and on the possibilities that arise for international cooperation in the context of international climate finance (ICF). While there is increasing clarity on concepts for such partnerships and coordinated action, a few issues stand out as being unresolved till date: these are intertwined questions related to combinations of obligations and incentives to participate in such arrangements, necessary political conditions to partake, and the role of international climate finance (ICF).

Workshop summary (PDF, 203.33 KB)

Workshop ‘Funding adaptation and small granting in South Africa’ on 17th, February 2021


The SNAPFI research team at the University of Cape Town (UCT) teamed up with the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) to co-host a ‘Funding adaptation and small granting in South Africa’ workshop on 17 February 2021. Representatives from national and local government, academia, funders, the finance community, and civil society organisations gathered online for a fun ‘TV show’ format series of presentations about climate finance and adaptation, and to learn about planned innovation for climate finance small granting. Some highlights from the workshop were:


  • DFFE’s Deputy Director for Climate Change Adaptation, Mikateko Sithole explained how national government is equipping provincial and municipal government to access climate finance, inter alia by building expertise to develop climate project proposals and build support across local government departments for adaptation interventions.
  • The NBI’s Reitumetse Moloatsane shared how NBI is working in partnership with SANBI to mobilise private sector involvement in Green Climate Fund projects in South Africa.
  • Mark New of the ACDI discussed insurance for climate change impacts,for example Africa Risk Capacity – which provides sovereign catastrophe insurance in Africa. He explained how climate finance might play a role: 
  • Cover the added cost of insurance that arises due to climate change, with the costs that would have arisen in a world without climate change still the responsibility of the insured person or entity.
  • Climate finance can support the use of parametric or index-based insurance as a risk transfer strategy for intermediate severity climate change impacts.
  • SANBI’s Mpfunzeni Tshindane gave a brief overview of South Africa’s Community Adaptation Small Grant Facility project, which piloted enhanced direct access. He explained how project learnings informed SANBI’s proposed innovation for approach to small granting. Rich and thoughtful response discussions followed.

The workshop was an energetic event that produced ideas for blending finance, for building on savings groups successes, and more. The optimistic participation holds promise for efforts to increase finance for adaptation in SA.

Online Workshop "The ESIF lessons for the programming of EU and international climate funding" on January 21, 2021

Between 2007 and 2020, the European Union allocated EUR 168 billion from the European Infrastructural and Structural Funds (ESIF) for climate actions in the EU member states. What lessons did we learn from this experience in the EU and how applicable are they beyond Europe?

On 21 January 2021, the Institute for Climate Protection, Energy, and Mobility (IKEM), the German Institute of Economic Research (DIW-Berlin), and the Alliance of Lithuanian Consumer Associations (LVOA) held online workshop on “The lessons of the European Structural and Investment Funds for the programming of EU and international climate funding”. The workshop built on recent study “Lessons learned for international climate policy from the programming, implementation, and monitoring of the European Structural and Investment Funds in EU Member States”.

The workshop gathered more than fifty policymakers, decision makers of the financing sector, and analysts from eighteen countries. The presentation session was devoted to highlights of the study as well as perspective challenges and achievements of the ESIF implementation in few EU Member States. The discussion session reflected on the EU experience from the perspective of non-EU countries where similar programmes were being planned. It brainstormed on:

  • Which role can international financial intermediaries or other sources of climate finance play in financing energy efficiency outside of the EU? 
  • How important is the provision of technical assistance? What are the needs to stimulate the energy efficiency market development?
  • What is the role of the government in this process? Which policy changes are required to produce a long-lasting impact on energy efficiency?

Workshop materials and presentations:

Aleksandra Novikova: “Lessons learned for international climate policy from the programming and implementation of the EU Structural and Investment Funds” (PDF, 395.16 KB)

Rimantas Žylius: “EU experience in financing energy efficiency in buildings in CEE. Reflections from Lithuania” (PDF, 0.96 MB)

Ivan Lesay: “ESIF financing of energy efficiency in buildings in Slovakia” (PDF, 257.16 KB)

Remon Zakaria: “Energy efficiency in buildings: EBRD’s experience” (PDF, 2.06 MB)

Workshop Agenda (PDF, 330.27 KB)

European Study Brief based on the workshop (PDF, 131.29 KB)

SNAPFI Annual Synthesis Report Webinar on November 20th, 2020

The socio-economic impacts of COVID-19 and how to deploy international climate finance in the context of green stimulus packages

This webinar presented the results of the 2020 synthesis report, which gave global review on status of green recovery strategies and options to deploy international climate finance. Renowned speakers from partner institutions from the EU, Brazil, India, Indonesia and South Africa presented and contributed to the discussion.

Full summary of the webinar (PDF, 199.91 KB)

All presentation slides (PDF, 4.63 MB)

Online Webinar '' Mobilising Green Finance for Industry Transition in India'' on October 12th, 2020

Short summary of TERI’s webinar on “Mobilising Green Finance for Industry Transition”

The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) in India held the Webinar on “Mobilising Green Finance for Industry Transition” on 12 October 2020, which was built on their recent study on the potential for leveraging Green Finance through policy frameworks for enabling an industry transition, supported by the German government International Climate Initiative (IKI). To know more about the project and access the report, you can visit the project page.

The webinar aimed to understand the barriers faced by the Indian steel industry to transition to low carbon pathways, the types of finance that are available, and relevant channels and market mechanisms that can be deployed to mobilise domestic and international climate finance to support them. The webinar was in the form of an interactive panel discussion, chaired by Dr Ajay Mathur, Director General, TERI.

The webinar started off with a presentation by TERI identifying three inter-linked barriers faced by the industry – demand-side, supply-side and finance-side, which are mainly caused by lack of coherence in existing policy and regulatory framework to guide the way to a green transition and undertaking the required measures for action.

Ms. Madhulika Sharma as the Chief of Corporate Sustainability, Tata Steel pointed out the importance of establishing policy framework that raises awareness to generate demand through multi-industry engagement. Mr. Prabodha Acharya, Chief Sustainability Officer, JSW Steel then added that the Indian steel industry needs to find a way to efficiently internalize carbon emission in the pricing structure by creating a consensus among policy makers and investors. Ms. Namita Vikas, Founder and Managing Partner, auctusESG LLP highlighted the difference between green and transition finance, stating that the financial community needs to look beyond “green” and enable a large number of sectors to participate in finding solutions that align with the Paris Agreement. Prof. Karsten Neuhoff as Head of Department of Climate Policy, DIW Berlin, briefly discussed other solutions that align with the climate neutrality of production processes such as recycling and material efficiency. Mr. Hari Gadde, Senior Climate Change Specialist, Carbon Markets and Innovation, World Bank, then discussed the role of carbon market in supporting the heavy industry sectors in the Paris Agreement by creating incentives through large scale regulation frameworks. Finally, Mr. Will Hall Associate Fellow at TERI stressed on the importance of ensuring effective policy implementation in a manner that does not obstruct the growth of industries by making then uncompetitive.

The panelist addressed these barriers by discussing key first steps required in order to tackle challenges facing the steel industry in India. Major takeaways were the need for a strengthened policy and regulatory framework to generate demand and incentivize supply by implementing internal carbon pricing as well as collaboration between the different sectors. Channelizing methods used to finance the renewable energy sector can help unlock and mobilise domestic and international climate finance for a much-needed green industry transition.

Presentation (PDF, 0.71 MB)

Summary (PDF, 0.92 MB)

The recording of this webinar is available at:
Online-Webinar To What Extent Adaptation Metrics can Contribute to Identify the Needs of both National Development Planning and International Climate Finance? on September 29th 2020

On September 29th 2020, Indonesia’s Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) successfully conducted a webinar in collaboration with the Research Project “Strengthen national climate policy implementation: Comparative empirical learning & creating linkage to climate finance”, discussing the question “To What Extent Adaptation Metrics can Contribute to Identify the Needs of both National Development Planning and International Climate Finance?” as part of the Institut’s Climate and Financial Talk Series.

Prof. Djoko Santoso Abi Sorosa, Ph.D. of the Institut Teknologi Bandung defined adaptation metrics as a way of measuring and assessing adaptation needs and effectiveness to achieve the NDC targets. He highlighted the importance of finding mutual consensus on criteria for developing adaptation metrics and the long-term structural transformation.

Ir. Medrilzam M.Prof.Econ, Ph.D. of the Ministry of National Development Planning in Indonesia added that adaptation metrics in national development planning are actions to reduce the value potential loss due to vulnerability and risk of climate change on people’s lives in an area, focusing foremost on areas of “super priority” which are especially vulnerable.

Dra. Sri Tantri Arundhati, M.Sc director of Climate Change Adaptation in the Ministry of Evironment and Forestry pointed out the requirement of stakeholder involvement for drafting a metrics and quantifying Indonesia’s target through a roadmap.

The webinar also included speakers such as Noor Syaifudin of the Ministry as Finance in Indonesia, who pointed out the government’s efforts for innovative financing and improved policies for adaptation as well as Wilmar A. Salim, S.T., M.Reg. Dev, Ph.D of Institut Teknologi Bandung.

Presentation Djoko Suroso (PDF, 1.66 MB)

Presentation Ir. Medrilzam (PDF, 3.2 MB)

Presentation Noor Syaifudin (PDF, 1.65 MB)

Presentation Dra. Sri Tantri (PDF, 2.18 MB)

Presentation Wilmar Salim (PDF, 3.51 MB)

MCI Comments (PDF, 2.33 MB)

Short Summary for Climate Policy and Finance Talk Serie – 1 : Green Stimulus Packages

How to Structure Green Stimulus Packages after the COVID-19 Crisis and which Role can International Climate Finance play?

Indonesia as one of the country partners held a series entitled Climate Policy and Finance Talk which aims to increase public awareness of the emerging issues of climate change. The first serie of the Talk on:  How to Structure Green Stimulus Packages after the COVID-19 Crisis in Indonesia and which Role can International Climate Finance play?  took place on 8 September 2020 attended by more than 150 participants joined through Zoom and Youtube platforms.

The webinar was initiated by Prof. Djoko Santoso Abi Suroso as the Head of Climate Change Center, Bandung Institute of Technology (CCC-ITB) which provided brief of the research project and encouraged study on innovative green financial aspects to achieve Indonesia NDC target amidts impacts of Covid-19 pandemic crisis. Prof. Karsten Neuhoff, Ph.D as Head of Climate Policy Department – DIW Berlin presented some lesson learned on how German dan European Union supported Green Recovery. Then, Ir. Medrilzam, MPE, Ph.D as the Director for Environment – the National Development Planning Agency (Bappenas) provided insights on Build Back Better (BBB) Concept for Covid-19 Crisis Recovery in term of the Low Carbon Development Initiative. At last, Dr. Dian Lestari as the Head of Center for Climate Change and Multilateral Policy - Ministry of Finance (MoF) provided information on potential financial arrangement to support green recovery in Indonesia. These topics were then explored by the discussants both view points of development planning and international climate finance by Heiner von Luepke as a Research Associate from DIW Berlin, Dr. Budhi Setiawan as a Climate Finance Researcher (ITB) and Prof. Pradono as an Economic and Development Researcher (ITB).

Takeaways were raised from the webinar, where the GoI’s Plan for 2021 will focus on accelerating economic recovery and social reform due to Covid-19 Crisis. However, the recent crisis will create some opportunities to enter a pathway on low carbon economy growth that will produce high and sustainable economic growth. Economic growth that is projected to 5.6% until 2024 and thereafter an averaged projection of 6% until 2045 will be implemented in 2022 Fiscal Year. These conditions might lead to two-year time-lag in planning of the low carbon economy pathway in term of that there will be two major gaps. The first gap is in the green funding window even though several funding windows have been prepared recently, while the second is how to align the BBB Concept to the regulation. In this case, the NDC Partnership survey of countries affected by Covid-19 crisis showed that technical supports would be needed in the form of assessing how stimulus packages can trigger green growth and calculating the risk of the time-lag to the achievement of NDC. Although neither the green aspect nor the integration of NDC appeared in the 2020 and 2021 stimulus policy objectives, the GoI is trying to push these objectives forward in 2022 by carrying out exercises in 2020 and 2021.


Online-Webinar "Transformational change toward low-carbon development in emerging economies: insights from case studies on international climate finance" on July 29th, 2020

The webinar on transformational change toward low-carbon development in emerging economies: insights from case studies on international climate finance (ICF) took place on July 29th 2020 with more than 65 participants. Twelve in-depth case studies were conducted on the role of international climate finance on transformational change by project partners in Brazil, India, South Africa and Indonesia, as well as from Mexico, Peru, Chile and Thailand. The main insights and conclusions of these studies were presented in the webinar as well as commented on by panellists, consisting of distinguished experts from South Africa, India and the World Bank, sharing their perspectives and additional insights on how international climate finance can support transformative change. It became clear that domestic public policy and stakeholder support for transformation and the involvement of the private sector seem to be core elements to determine transformational change. It is in such situations, that ICF can unfold most impacts.

Prof Karsten Neuhoff, Head of Climate Policy Department at the German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin), welcomed all participants and explained the background and goals of the IKI-project, namely developing policy and financial instruments in order to mobilize private and public investments and thereby contributing to market transformation. In addition, the project aims at structuring climate financing to support robust institutional frameworks and policies.

The study is part of a research-based IKI-project of a consortium of five research-institutions, that conduct every year country-specific studies on climate-finance topics. In addition, a cross-country study is conducted, covering topics of overarching interest. Findings of this year´s cross-country study have been discussed at the webinar.

Heiner von Lüpke and Nils May (DIW) presented the results of the cross-country study, starting with a concept of “transformational change”, namely the dimensions, relevance, scale of change, depth of change and sustainability. According to von Lüpke und May several factors are necessary for ICF to advance transformational change. First, identification of specific domestic support needs to be done early on but also allowing for dynamic planning to respond to unforeseen events and developments. Second, alignment of ICF contribution with government policies and programmes is important, however not granted in case transformational change implies a deviation from business as usual policies and programs. Third, ICF requires political will to succeed and transparency as a basis for trust as prerequisites for effective implementation. Importantly, ICF can also contribute to shape political will.

There are several elements that support or hinder successful ICF contributions to transformational change. Political visibility of programmes can create the environment in which high-level political backing supports transformational change. Institutional innovation is important, when existing institutions block transformational change. Stakeholder participation provides legitimacy for policies and programmes and creates coalitions driving transformational change. Implementation modalities as direct access can enable transformational change but can also increase transaction costs if local capacities are not sufficient.

The main points from the panellists and participants session were:

  • International Climate Finance should aim to support transformational change and not just marginal improvements. Klaus Oppermann, Senior Climate Finance Specialist at the World Bank stressed that climate finance should go beyond financing individual projects and ought to take more innovative, yet risky approaches. Today, 95% of ODA are grants or concessional loans. It remains a a task to develop other instruments, like guarantees and result-based finance, to push for transformational change.
  • ICF is complex. Samantha Keen, Energy, Environment and Climate Change Group Co-Leader at the University of Capetown, South Africa explained the complexity that arises when dealing with ICF. She encouraged to challenge the concepts and tools adopted in ICF where changes to systemic elements might potentially improve the design or directing of financial flows.
  • Finance flows and investment are not enough for successful interventions. Rajani Ranjan Rashmi, Distinguished Fellow at TERI, India explained that good business models and in-depth analysis of technology needs are important to drive transformational change. It is easier to finance projects in key sectors where domestic policies already exist that already support transformational change.      
  • Domestic policy is key to support transformational change. Nils May used the example of Germany, where renewable energy production expanded massively, when the feed-in tariff had been introduced. More research is needed for finding the right instruments, systematic approaches and the link between international support and policy implementation in other sectors, like electrification of transport, energy efficiency.
  • All though ICF can serve as an acceleration tool or a multiplier, transformational change for developing economies needs to come from domestic policy and stakeholder participation (especially private sector, role of ICF: leverage of private capital). In other words: without domestic policy support and without private sector, we do not expect transformational change.

 We take the opportunity to thank all three panellist and the webinar participants for the helpful comments and feed-back.

Workshop presentation (PDF, 0.94 MB)

Online-Workshop "Barriers to attracting direct and capital market investments for railway infrastructure in Brazil" on July 21st, 2020

The FGV team held its first winter workshop on 21st of July 2020. The purpose of the event was to present Brazil’s national study (entitled “Barriers to attracting direct and capital market investments for railway infrastructure in Brazil”) and gather feedback on next steps for Year 2 of the SNAPFI project. Participants (six, in total) included representatives from the Ministry of Infrastructure, sector associations, concessionaires, academia and the advisors for the Brazilian team, Thatyanne Gasparotto (Climate Bonds Initiative) and Maria Eugenia Sosa Taborda (UNEP-FI). Due to the coronavirus crisis, the workshop was held online.

Annelise Vendramini (FGV) introduced the SNAPFI project and outlined the main objectives of the workshop. Afterwards, Camila Yamahaki and Gustavo Velloso Breviglieri (FGV) presented the research findings, examining the perception of the interviewees with regard to the barriers to the attraction of private investments to the railway sector, previously identified in the literature.

After the presentation, the participants were invited to comment on the interview results and offer suggestions on what avenues the research team should pursue in Year 2. The participants indicated that it would be interesting:

  • to disseminate the research results to a larger audience, including to members of the federal government;
  • to examine how institutional investors could be attracted to investments in infrastructure debentures;
  • to identify the main barriers preventing domestic institutional investors from investing in infrastructure;
  • to explore the experiences of and learnings from foreign investors that invest in infrastructure;
  • to focus on “quick wins”, that is, to investigate tangible actions to remove some barriers in the short-term.

Workshop presentation (PDF, 0.87 MB)

Online-Workshop "Stimulating Climate Resilient Growth in India. Exploring the role of Climate Finance", June 16th, 2020


The year 2020, is a landmark year for the global fight against climate change, as this is when the countries agreed to come back to the negotiating table to assess the achievements and accordingly develop enhanced climate commitments. In the months leading up to this deadline, with dire warning on climate impacts from scientists and researchers from across the world, the hope was that countries would be able to build a strong climate accord. A significant part of the existing commitments is dependent on climate finance, which includes the future carbon markets and trading mechanisms, finance instruments like green bonds and concessional loans, public budgetary support, etc.
However, since the beginning of this year, the world has been grappling with an unprecedented crisis with the on-going pandemic, which is deeply impacting the global & local economies. With many countries having to re-prioritise and direct a major part of public expenditure towards humanitarian aid, social & health sectors, as they are still grappling with the rising cases of COVID-19. There is still high uncertainty on how this crisis will pan out, and fears that its overall impact on the economy may be much worse and longer-term, than currently estimated.
In face of this shift in priorities, the constrained public budgets and probable fall in the finance available for addressing climate change, the issue of re-stimulating climate finance becomes one of utmost urgency. The need of the hour, as articulated by many leading voices in this area, is to understand and design frameworks for a ‘green’ economic revival, one which is just & equitable, safe and resilient (socially, environmentally and economically).

Issue for Panel Discussion

The challenge for an economy like India, is to keep investment levels in clean energy, green infrastructure and technologies on a consistently growing trajectory, in the face of changing the health crisis and its resultant economic impact. In his speech on the stimulus package for the Indian economy, Prime Minister Narendra Modi focused on five pillars to make the country self-reliant, this included infrastructure and a technology driven system as pillars too. At this critical time, it is essential to keep the momentum for energy transition and climate actions going across all levels, from industries to states to national policies, by focusing on these national priority areas. In this context, international and domestic climate finance can play a catalytic role, enabling a green transition while also helping developing countries like India, achieve key developmental and socio-economic goals.

There are major investment gaps in critical areas such as off-grid renewable energy for the agriculture sector, energy efficiency for MSMEs, resilient infrastructure for rural development, and technology uptake and implementation for high-emitting industries. At the same time, all these areas have the potential to generate sizable amounts of robust carbon mitigation assets, and leverage these to become largely self-sustaining in terms of finance. While it is clear that carbon finance can play an important role in enabling these developments, the status of carbon prices in India at present, is volatile and under-developed.

In the current economic situation, it is necessary to mobilize additional climate finance from the public and private sector. There are several existing mechanisms to learn from and build on, such as CDM, PAT, past green bond issues, etc. Building on this experience, there is a need to design and demonstrate finance mechanisms that are able to address the concerns of the producers, be able to achieve accelerated emission reduction, while also contributing to the economic recovery. There have also been a range of ideas proposed which can be, which are still in design stages in many cases, and this is an opportune period to pilot test these at a focused scale. These includes the concept of storing carbon credits in the absence of fully functioning markets, creating a multilateral fund for demanding and buying robust carbon credits, piloting sector specific instruments based on voluntary measures, etc.

Here is also the link to the YouTube webcast of the workshop.

Agenda (PDF, 342.78 KB)

Presentation (PDF, 0.57 MB)

Summary (PDF, 300.04 KB)

Just transition transaction in South Africa: reflections on national workshop

A just transition transaction (JTT) is a form of climate finance, in that it accelerates the phase-out of coal-fired power. This in itself reduces emissions, and it also creates space for renewable energy – with wind and solar PV already being competitive in SA. This shift our thinking of international climate finance from investing in ‘green’ technologies to supporting the transition away from coal. The JTT is thus understood as `transition finance, bridging the gap between pressure to divest from coal and rise of green finance.

Find out more here

Online Workshop "The impact of EU level financial instruments on climate policy in EU member states: case study of European Structural and Investment Funds", March 27th 2020

The investment challenge to decarbonize global economies in terms of mobilizing additional investment and restructuring existing portfolio is unprecedented, especially for emerging economics facing other numerous, development-related challenges. The main questions are how to raise public and private capital to finance the transition in the most impactful way as well as how to structure international climate finance to support such processes.

The workshop as part of the IKI funded project “Strengthen national climate policy implementation: Comparative empirical learning & creating linkage to climate finance” (SNAPFI). The project aims to discuss the lessons learned from the European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF) use for international climate policy and how to assess them. The main objectives of the workshop are:

  • Understand how EU-level finance impacted climate policy development in selected EU countries,
  • Identify the features of ESIF programming and implementation in selected countries that enabled the transformative effects achieved so far, and
  • Discuss lessons learned from the ESIF use for international climate policy.

The IKI funded SNAPFI project started in June 2019 and aims to advice how international climate finance can support the implementation of National Determined Contributions (NDCs) in emerging economies. To achieve this, it conducts comparative analyses and enable the exchange with lessons learned between countries. In this regard, lessons learned from European countries can help illustrate how long-term stable climate policy framework could be formed. Many challenges, which occur in Europe, in particular in Central and Eastern Europe with lower welfare levels than in Western Europe, have relevance in emerging countries too.


Richard Filcak: Evaluation of the Progress & Challenges Ahead in the Slovak Republic (PDF, 391.83 KB)

Rimantas Zylius: Using ESIF in Lithuania: programming and priorities (PDF, 164.82 KB)

Valius Serbenta: Modernization Program for Multi Apartment Buildings in Lithuania (PDF, 2.31 MB)

Aleksandra Novikova: Setting the scene: project rationale and the ESIF analysis methodology (PDF, 353.13 KB)

Marina Olshanskaya: Lessons Learnt: financing climate actions from EU structural funds and recommendations for emerging economies (PDF, 207.7 KB)

Boriss Knigins: Cohesion policy after 2020 – investments in climate and energy (PDF, 0.58 MB)

Workshop Agenda (PDF, 0.69 MB)

Workshop Summary (PDF, 190.71 KB)

Workshop "Finance mechanisms for accelerating industry decarbonization" in India on January 29th, 2020

Industries have a key role to play in keeping global warming at less than 2°C. It is the private sector that is expected to lead the way in creating low-carbon pathways for industries to transition. The Indian industry is recognized globally for its proactive, ambitious and pioneering climate actions. However, to meet the climate goals a wider and deeper industrial transition is required. For this the sector requires an enabling environment in pursuance to incorporate sound climate financial decision making and develop resilient strategy. The theme focuses on understanding the specific aspects or needs that are required to mobilize and scale up finance from industrial perspectives that yield maximum benefits through effective collaboration.

Track 1: Accelerating carbon pricing for low carbon finance in the corporate sector

Carbon pricing has been recognized as one of the effective and critical tools for setting a social cost of carbon to correct externalities and efficiently reduce emissions from the corporate sector. Introduction of a price on carbon is a reflection of the damage that has occurred which not only encourages industries and manufacturers to monitor and reduce emissions but to invest in low carbon technologies. Besides this, carbon pricing policies have been recognized to promote clean energy transitions and accomplish equity goals. However, until now corporates have been imposing carbon taxes through internal carbon pricing which on one hand increases competitiveness and on the other hand, has been rendered to generate inefficient revenues. It is primarily because the price benchmarked is not sufficient to compensate for the damage caused mainly due to lack of proper guidelines and policy interventions to promote such environmental market instruments among the corporate sector. This has widely discouraged technological interventions among many corporates implying carbon pricing as a mere management tool lacking sufficient impact towards adopting a low emissions corporate strategy.

Although Article 6 of Paris Agreement, governing the establishment of carbon markets, remained unresolved at COP25, it is almost certain carbon pricing will become more mainstream in coming years. Explicit carbon taxes, border tax adjustments and carbon markets are likely to be used as a mechanism to regulate global emissions. In order to help understand and quantify potential climate risk impacts, the Task Force on Climate Related Financial Disclosures recommends the application of ICP as a key metric in scenario analysis because it is forward-looking and can help internalize the idea of carbon risk and prepare to aggressively compete in a carbon-constrained world. In addition to this, ICP is also a unique tool to help organizations create funds that can be used to invest in low carbon transition.

CDP has partnered with TERI to develop a handbook on internal carbon pricing to support corporate sector in their endeavour to put a price on carbon emissions. Like the former handbook, the second edition of the handbook will include step-wise guidance on implementing an internal carbon pricing strategies, existing policy landscape and best practices undertaken by leading corporates in India. During this event, CDP will launch the second handbook and take stock of the knowledge base and strengthen understanding of emerging trends in carbon pricing during a high-level panel discussion.

Track 2: Mainstreaming green finance for decarbonizing industries

A green industry is the goal, but on the way to achieving this goal, it is imperative to support industries in transitioning to decarbonization pathways. Such support must be available through enabling policies and access to affordable finance. Among India’s eight core sector industries, which form the backbone of any developing economy, are steel, cement and electricity. These three and the others are highly emission intensive but also essential for the country’s vision to become a $5 trillion economy by 2024-25. Some of these industries, such as steel, are working at the most optimum level of technology available. In these sectors, efficiency optimization is not the problem, however the lack of scalable alternatives is.

For several industries, energy transition can be driven by the competitiveness of low-carbon technologies, notably in the case of the power sector, and personal transport segment. However, for other sectors such as heavy industry (including steel) and heavy transport; the technologies and operational models required are yet to achieve market competitiveness.

It is here that the role of finance becomes indispensable. Green finance in the form of bonds, grants, loans, results based finance or any other form is crucial for three aspects: R&D, scalability, and affordability. Increased R&D can help develop technological alternatives which can reduce emissions significantly when deployed at a large scale; also access to viable finance is necessary for installing, operationalizing and utilizing this technology to achieve actual emissions reductions.

This issue is especially critical for India, in the context of its high economic and infrastructure growth, projected for the coming decade. Historically, industrial, economic and social development world-over has been fueled by coal and other fossil fuels. Now for developing countries, including India, to manage this challenging feat without resorting to the traditional development pathways and models, requires a concerted and collaborative effort, which includes access to affordable finance and supportive policies.

This panel discussion will focus on developing a degree of understanding on what is required to advance the ongoing industry transitions.

Workshop Agenda (PDF, 437.57 KB)

Workshop Summary (PDF, 319.93 KB)

The Kick-Off National Workshop by Indonesia-team for IKI-DIW on December 18th, 2019

On December 18th 2019, ITB team held The 1st National Workshop at Shangri-La Hotel, Jakarta, as the kick-off event of upcoming multi-years international research network, which includes Indonesia, Germany, Brazil, India, and South Africa. The workshop is an essential part of an international research project titled “Strengthen national climate policy implementation: Comparative empirical learning & creating linkage to climate finance” or SNAPFI, supported by Internationale Klimaschutzinitiative (IKI), Germany. This workshop had been successful in providing broader perspectives about current and historical issues, relationship among actors, as well as identifying gap in regard to climate governanceand financing in Indonesia.

Preceded by series of in-depth interviews during November-December 2019, several initial outlooks were provided by key persons from several ministries and other related stakeholders during the workshop, including bank officials and experts on climate change governance. Around 30 attendants participated in this workshop, coming from Ministry of Environment and Forestry (KLHK), Ministry of National Development Planning (BAPPENAS), Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (Kementerian ESDM), Ministry of Transportation (Kemenhub), Fiscal Policy Agency (Badan Kebijakan Fiskal) and Directorate of Sharia Finance as part of Ministry of Finance (Kemenkeu), Institute for Essential Service Reform (IESR), Indonesian Society of Renewable Energy (METI) and National Energy Council of Indonesia (DEN), and GIZ-Indonesia. Heiner von Luepke, a representative from DIW-Berlin, also attended this event.

The workshop was opened by the Director of Climate Change Mitigation, Ministry of Environment and Forestry who is one of leading actors in Indonesian climate change governance. In her speech, the Director on behalf of Ministry of Environment and Forestry gave warm welcome to this international research network to support the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) Implementation in Indonesia. She realized that a lack of this national effort remains the governance issue. Following the speech, The Director of Partnership from ITB then presented an acknowledgement for this multi-years research and advised for more collaboration. Dr. Djoko Santoso Abi Suroso from Center for Climate Change, ITB then introduced the SNAPFI project and the initial findings taken from in-depth interviews and raised several climate change governance issues in Indonesia. Next presentations from the Ministry of Environment and Forestry followed by the Fiscal Policy Agency of Ministry of Finance provided pertinent information on the current development policies, NDC implementation and its barriers, financing schemes, and current challenges on funding the green projects. At the end of this session, Heiner von Luepke delivered the case of the Mexican energy transition as a lesson in climate change governance.

After the presentations, two-way discussion was then guided by Prof. Pradono from ITB, by raising questions on the NDC targets, lack of non-government parties’ engagements i.e. civil society and NGO, as well as authority overlappings from multiple sectors not only in facing climate change issues but also in reaching the NDC targets.

As the concluding remarks, this project is expected to provide policy advices related to climate change financing and to rebuild an ideal model of climate governance in Indonesia towards achieving the NDC targets. In addition, the coordination and collaboration between institutions, private sectors, and academics are also expected to be improved through this project, where all participants agreed to cooperate to the success of the study. ITB team also indicated that a further workshop will be held to present the results of the case study by mid-2020, in which the participants will be kept informed.

National workshop on climate finance to tranform SA energy infrastructure, November 6th 2019 in Sandton, South Africa

The UCT team held a highly successful first national workshop on 6 November 2019. The purpose of the workshop was to get early input to the country case study. Participants included decision-makers from National Treasury, development finance institutions, retail and investment banks, banking association,  civil society, NBI staff and UCT researchers. The workshop was co-hosted with National Business Initiative (NBI), which is a is a voluntary coalition of companies, working towards sustainable growth and development in South Africa. The workshop was held in Sandton, the financial heartland of South Africa.

Samantha Keen from the UCT team introduced the SNAPFI project, after which Prof Harald Winkler spoke to the outline of the case study on ‘climate finance to transform energy infrastructure as part of a just transition in South Africa’.  The raised questions including: How can climate finance accelerate a phase-out of coal, as part of a just transition? What is the role of climate finance in accelerating a phase out of coal ?  What institutional innovation in ownership models would support renewable energy?  In the wide-ranging discussion, participants offered their perspectives on these questions. They also raised additional issues – relating to the baseline, additionality, the desirability of a special purpose vehicle, strategic issues in a just transition (JT), what a JT fund might provide, and much more. These inputs gave the UCT team valuable guidance that will enrich the case study. In closing, the team indicated that a further workshop will be held to present results of the case study (by mid-2020) and that participants will be kept informed.

The case study and workshop are important parts of work in South Africa, as part of an international research project SNAPFI (“Strengthen national climate policy implementation: Comparative empirical learning & creating linkage to climate finance”), supported by IKI.

 The 1st Kick-off Workshop, September 18th - 20th 2019 in Berlin

The project`s Kick-off Workshops took place 18th -20th September 2019 in Berlin. Participants from all partner institutions discussed - among other topics – the content of the first-year country and cross-country studies.

Presentation Indonesia (PDF, 1.46 MB)

Presentations (PDF, 2.17 MB)

  • Workshop on December 18th 2019 in Indonesia Photo: Shangri-la Hotel, Jakarta, Indonesia
    © PPI-ITB

  • Workshop on December 18th 2019 in Indonesia Photo: Shangri-la Hotel, Jakarta, Indonesia
    © PPI-ITB

  • Workshop on November 6th 2019 in South Africa
    © University of Cape Town

  • Workshop on November 6th 2019 in South Africa
    © University of Cape Town

  • The 1st Kick-off Workshop, September 18th - 20th in Berlin
    © DIW Berlin


DIW works with renowned partners in the target countries: the Center for Sustainability Studies of Fundação Getulio Vargas (Brazil), The Energy and Resources Institute (India) in cooperation with the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, the Climate Change Center, Institute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia) and the University of Cape Town (South Africa).

In addition, the team will be supported by Institute for Climate Protection Energy and Mobility (Germany), Climate Strategies (UK), DIW Econ (Germany), New Climate Institute (Germany), Vivid Economics (UK).

In the partner countries, the research project has the support of those Ministries, that are responsible for the coordination of the NDC,

  • In India: Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change
  • In Indonesia: Ministry of National Development and Planning
  • In South Africa: Department of Environment, Forestry and Fisheries.
  • In Brazil: Ministry of Economics (tbc)


Karsten Neuhoff, DIW Berlin

David Rusnok, DIW Berlin,

Heiner von Lüpke, DIW Berlin

Catherine Marchewitz, DIW Berlin