Dieses Papier stellt Modellrechnungen zur Entwicklung der Gesetzlichen Rentenversicherung (GRV) vor. Es beruht vorwiegend auf dem MEA-PENSIM Modell des Munich Center of the Economics of Aging (MEA) und ergänzend auf dem PENPRO-Modell des DIW. Das Modell projiziert aus Annahmen und Setzungen in mehreren Schritten die Entwicklung der Demographie und Beschäftigung sowie der wichtigsten Kenngrößen der
We study the employment effects of a large increase in the early retirement age (ERA) of women. Raising the ERA has the potential to extend contribution periods and to reduce the number of pensioners at the same time. However, workers may not be able to work longer or may choose other social support programs as exit routes from employment. Results suggest that the reform increases employment,
This study uses German social security records to provide novel evidence on cohort trends of the heterogeneity in life expectancy by lifetime earnings and, additionally, documents the distributional implications of this earnings-related heterogeneity. We find a strong association between lifetime earnings and life expectancy at age 65 and show that the longevity gap is increasing across cohorts.
Occupational positions can explain an important part of the differences in pay between men and women. However, a considerable Gender Pay Gap exists even within the same occupational position. In this paper, we aim at understanding the reason for the gap within occupational positions and, therefore, investigate whether promotions lead to the same effect on earnings growth for men and women.
Economists spend much of their lives talking about and correcting for sample selection. Recent evidence from behavioral economics documents that participants in lab experiments don't account for selection effects when they interpret conditional distributions. This "selection neglect" can distort expectations in settings where individuals learn from comparisons with other people who differ in
This paper examines the causal impact of later retirement on outpatient care consumption among the French elderly. Outpatient care are defined as all the care provided out of the hospital setting. This question is of interest since spill effects may arise if later retirement increases health care expenditures. To deal with reverse causality issue, I use, as an instrumental variable, the 1993
Housing costs have risen sharply since 1996, especially for renters - Two thirds of older renting households spend over 30 percent of their income on rent compared with 38 percent in 1996 – People living alone in particular are affected by high housing costs
Using a reform induced increase in the ERA for German women this paper uncovers causal effects of retirement on informal care provision. Studies so far focus on the causality of labor supply on informal care activity in the middle part of an individual’s working career, mostly neglecting effects of retirement. This paper uses the 1999 reform that abolished the ERA at age 60 for women
The tax and fiscal reforms headed by German finance minister Matthias Erzberger in 1919 and 1920 fundamentally reshaped German public finances. The total tax revenue as a percentage of GDP, or tax-to-GDP ratio, doubled and increased continually until the end of World War II. Since the 1950s, the tax-to-GDP ratio has remained between 22 and 24 percent of GDP most of the time. West Germany’s
Das Papier konzentriert sich auf die Entwicklung des Systems der kapitalgedeckten, betrieblichen Altersversorgung in Dänemark. Das dänische System, das 1987 als große Vereinbarung zwischen den Sozialpartnern, die von der Regierung unterstützt wird, und als Teil des Tarifverhandlungsprozesses eingeführt wurde, unterscheidet sich vom Aufbau in den meisten anderen Ländern, in denen This paper focuses