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Diskussionspapiere 1870 / 2020

Difference-in-Differences to Identify Causal Effects of COVID-19 Policies

Policymakers have implemented a wide range of non-pharmaceutical interventions to fight the spread of COVID-19. Variation in policies across jurisdictions and over time strongly suggests a difference-in-differences (DD) research design to estimate causal effects of counter-COVID measures. We discuss threats to the validity of these DD designs and make recommendations about how researchers can avoid ...

2020| Andrew Goodman-Bacon, Jan Marcus
Externe referierte Aufsätze

Public Health Insurance, Individual Health, and Entry into Self-Employment

We investigate the impact of a differential treatment of paid employees versus self-employed workers in a public health insurance system on the entry rate into self-employment. Health insurance systems that distinguish between the two sectors of employment create incentives or disincentives to start a business for different individuals. We estimate a discrete time hazard rate model of entry into self-employment ...

In: Small Business Economics 49 (2017), 3, S. 647–669 | Frank M. Fossen, Johannes König
Diskussionspapiere 1861 / 2020

Viral Shocks to the World Economy

We construct a news-based viral disease index and study the dynamic impact of epidemics on the world economy, using structural vector autoregressions. Epidemic shocks have persistently negative effects, both directly and indirectly, on affected countries and on world output. The shocks lead to a significant fall in global trade, employment, and consumer prices for three quarters, and the losses are ...

2020| Konstantin A. Kholodilin, Malte Rieth
Diskussionspapiere 1825 / 2019

Do Expert Panelists Herd? Evidence from FDA Committees

We develop a structural model to address the question whether, and to what extent, expert panelists engage in herd behavior when voting on important policy questions. Our data comes from FDA advisory committees voting on questions concerning the approval of new drug applications. We utilize a change in the voting procedure from sequential to simultaneous voting to identify herding. Estimates suggest ...

2019| Melissa Newham, Rune Midjord
SOEP Brown Bag Seminar

The New Top-Wealth Sample - First Impressions

Top-wealth holders are typically underrepresented or completely missing in population surveys. The lack of comprehensive national registers on high-wealth individuals in many countries challenged previous attempts to remedy this under-representation. In a novel research design, we draw on public data on the shareholding structures of companies as a sampling frame. Our design builds on...

07.11.2019| Carsten Schröder, Johannes König
SOEP Brown Bag Seminar

Coping with Life-Event Shocks: Psychological Determinants of Resilience

In this research we investigate the psychological determinants of resilience. Specifically, we observe whether the adaptation process to negative life events is different across the distribution of personality traits (the so-called big five) and of different life attitudes (such as locus of control and risk aversion). We take into consideration two different areas of shocking events: the job...

23.10.2019| Tommasso Ramella, UNIMIB
Externe referierte Aufsätze

Notes about Comparing Long-Term Care Expenditures across Countries: Comment on "Financing Long-Term Care: Lessons from Japan"

The comparison of long-term care (LTC) expenditures is a difficult task. National LTC systems differ widely in terms of eligibility criteria, level of benefits, institutional variety and regional heterogeneity. In this commentary I will first give some general remarks on cross country comparisons. Then I discuss the role of the informal sector which is the most important pillar of all LTC systems. ...

In: International Journal of Health Policy and Management 9 (2020), 2, S. 80-82 | Johannes Geyer
SOEP Brown Bag Seminar

Health of Nations: A Comparison of Intergenerational Health Mobility in Denmark, Germany and the United States

Equality of opportunity with respect to health outcomes is severely understudied, while in contrast the cases of income and education have received ample attention in the economic literature. This paper is the first to analyze the importance of family background for health in a cross-country comparison. Using comparable survey data we study sibling correlations in five health outcomes in...

12.07.2019| Carsten Andersen (Aarhus University)
SOEP Brown Bag Seminar

2D:4D and Economic Preferences in a Large Representative Sample of Germans

Over the last decade, there has been a growing interest in the association between 2D:4D, a putative marker for prenatal testosterone exposure, and economic preferences. The results are mixed, and part of the inconclusiveness may come from the typically limited sample sizes as well as the many “researcher degrees of freedom” in the analysis. To firmly test if 2D:4D is associated...

17.07.2019| Levent Neyse
DIW Weekly Report 19 / 2019

Artificial Intelligence and Big Data Can Help Contain Resistance to Antibiotics

Improving physicians’ prescription practices is a primary strategy for countering the rise in resistance to antibiotics. This would prevent physicians from incorrectly prescribing antibiotics, one of the main causes of antibiotic resistance. The increasing availability of medical data and methods of machine learning provide an opportunity to generate instant diagnoses. In the present study, the example ...

2019| Michael A. Ribers, Hannes Ullrich
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