Veranstaltungen

Arbeit und Beschäftigung

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23. April 2014

BeNA - Seminar für Arbeitsmarktforschung Returns to Foreign Language Skills in a Developing Country: The Case of Turkey

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Referent/-in
  • Antonio Di Paolo (Universitat Barcelona)
  • Zeit
    18:15 - 19:30
    Ort
    Gustav-Schmoller-Raum DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Raum 3.3.002A Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    9. April 2014

    BeNA - Seminar für Arbeitsmarktforschung The Effect of Crime Exposure on Crime Sentences

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    Referent/-in
  • Arnaud Philippe (CREST)
  • Zeit
    18:15 - 19:30
    Ort
    Humboldt Universität Berlin Room 125 Spandauer Str. 1 10178 Berlin
    9. April 2014

    Cluster-Seminar Öffentliche Finanzen und Lebenslagen Is it really all that bad? The impact of shortening high school tenure on grade repetitions and graduation rates

    (joint with Jan Marcus, DIW Berlin)
    In designing education systems, policy-makers face a trade-off between the provision of higher levels of schooling and earlier labour market entries. The G8-reform, a fundamental education reform in Germany, tackles this trade-off by increasing education efficiency: The time in high school is reduced by one year while the total number of instruction hours is left unchanged. As a first indicator of the overall effectiveness of this recent policy, we study its effect on grade repetitions and high school graduation rates. Employing administrative data on all pupils in Germany, we exploit both temporal and regional variations in the implementation of the reform. We show that the shortening of the high school track length has no impact on grade repetitions in lower grades, whereas they double for pupils in the final years before graduation. The large majority of students, however, completes high school earlier. We cannot find any reduction in graduation rates. The results are robust to various changes in model specifications. The results indicate that the reform's potential benefits for labour markets, pension schemes and fertility will be slightly attenuated due to increased repetition rates.

    Referent/-in
    Zeit
    12:30-13:30
    Ort
    Eleanor-Dulles-Raum DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Raum 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 610
    2. April 2014

    SOEP Brown Bag Seminar Der flächendeckende Mindestlohn

    Die Einführung des flächendeckenden gesetzlichen Mindestlohns von 8,50 Euro ist ein großes, mit vielen sozialpolitischen Risiken verbundenes Experiment. Dieser Übersichtsartikel zeigt, dass weder die unterschiedlichen theoretischen Erklärungsmodelle noch die große Anzahl empirischer Arbeiten aus anderen Ländern die Hoffnung rechtfertigen, der Mindestlohn würde in Deutschland nicht zu substantiellen Beschäftigungsverlusten führen. Unsere Simulationsrechnung zeigt, dass bei einem Mindestlohn von 8,50 Euro - unabhängig vom unterstellten Arbeitsmarktszenario - substantielle Beschäftigungsverluste drohen. Besonders stark betroffen sind die heutigen Aufstocker, die von der Mindestlohnerhöhung kaum etwas mit nach Hause nehmen können, aber in Zukunft einem ungleich höheren Arbeitsplatzrisiko ausgesetzt sind. Diese Befunde lassen zweifeln, dass die Politik mit dem Mindestlohn ihre erklärten Ziele einer erhöhten Verteilungsgerechtigkeit und der Entlastung der öffentlichen Haushalte erreichen kann.

    JEL Klassifikation: H2, I3, J3
    Stichworte: Flächendeckender Mindestlohn, Beschäftigungsverluste, Verteilungsgerechtigkeit

    Referent/-in
  • Prof. Ronnie Schöb (Freie Universität Berlin, CESifo, ifo Dresden)
  • Zeit
    12:30-13:30
    Ort
    Gustav-Schmoller-Raum DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Raum 3.3.002A Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 587
    13. März 2014

    SOEP Brown Bag Seminar Wie geht es weiter nach der Schule? – Ergebnisse der Schweizer PISA-Folgestudie TREE

    Der Übergang von der Schule ins Erwerbs- und Erwachsenenleben ist eine entscheidende und kritische Lebensphase, die in modernen Gesellschaften zunehmend länger, vielfältiger, anforderungs- und risikoreicher geworden ist (Bergman et al., 2012). Wie gestaltet sich dieser Übergang bei jungen Erwachsenen in der Schweiz? Auf welche Schwierigkeiten und Hindernisse stoßen sie dabei? Was sind Ge- und Misslingensbedingungen dieser Transition?
    TREE („Transitionen von der Erstausbildung ins Erwerbsleben") ist in der Schweiz die erste nationale Längsschnittuntersuchung zum Übergang Jugendlicher von der Schule ins Erwachsenenleben. Im Fokus der Panelstudie stehen die Ausbildungs- und Erwerbsverläufe nach dem Ende der Pflichtschulzeit sowie der Eintritt in den Arbeitsmarkt. Die Ausgangsstichprobe von TREE umfasst rund 6.000 Jugendliche am Ende ihrer Pflichtschulzeit, die an PISA 2000 teilnahmen und seitdem über nunmehr neun Erhebungswellen (2001-2007 jährlich, 2010, aktuell laufend in 2014) längsschnittlich begleitet werden. Die Stichprobe ist national und sprachregional repräsentativ. Die TREE-Daten erlauben aus Sicht der Ökonomie, Soziologie, Erziehungswissenschaft und Psychologie vielfältige Analysen zu den Konsequenzen, Entstehungs- und Kontextbedingungen verschiedener Transitionen im Jugend- und jungen Erwachsenenalter. Die TREE-Daten sind für alle interessierten Forschenden als public use file verfügbar.

    Referent/-in
  • Katja Scharenberg (Universität Basel)
  • Zeit
    12:30-13:30
    Ort
    Gustav-Schmoller-Raum DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Raum 3.3.002A Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 587
    5. März 2014

    SOEP Brown Bag Seminar Die kurzfristigen beruflichen Folgen von Arbeitslosigkeit

    Zahlreiche Forschungsarbeiten haben gezeigt, dass Arbeitslose sehr viel häufiger von beruflicher Abwartsmobilität betroffen sind als statistisch vergleichbare Personen ohne Arbeitslosigkeitserfahrung. So liegen bspw. die Lohne bei Wiederbeschäftigung deutlich unter dem Niveau vor der Arbeitslosigkeit bzw. unter einem kontrafaktischen Lohnniveau ohne Arbeitslosigkeit (c.f. Dieckhoff 2011, Gangl 2006, Gangl 2004, Mooi-Reci 2011 and Strauf & Hillmert 2011). Von sehr wenigen Ausnahmen abgesehen, ist das kritische Ereignis in diesen Studien (zumindest implizit) als Arbeitsplatzverlust mit anschließender Arbeitslosigkeit definiert. Das bedeutet, dass die auf diese Weise konstruierten Schätzungen des kausalen Effektes von Arbeitslosigkeit sowohl den direkten Effekt des Arbeitsplatzverlustes als auch den uber die Arbeitslosigkeit vermittelten indirekten Effekt des Arbeitsplatzverlustes auf die abhängige Variable abbilden. Die vorliegende Untersuchung versucht den `reinen' Effekt der Arbeitslosigkeit auf den Bruttostundenlohn anhand der Daten des Sozio-okonomischen Panels und mit Hilfe verschiedener Difference-in-Differences Matching-Verfahren zu schätzen. Zu diesem Zweck werden Individuen, die aus demselben Grund ihren Arbeitsplatz verloren bzw. aufgegeben haben und sich nur durch einen darauf folgenden Arbeitslosigkeitsspell unterscheiden gematcht. Die bisherigen Ergebnisse deuten darauf hin, dass die ausnahmslos negativen durchschnittlichen Effekte von Arbeitslosigkeit mit dem Kündigungsgrund variieren.

    Referent/-in
  • Sebastian Beil (Ruhr-Universität Bochum)
  • Zeit
    12:30-13:30
    Ort
    Eleanor-Dulles-Raum DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Raum 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 587
    12. Februar 2014

    Cluster-Seminar Öffentliche Finanzen und Lebenslagen Labor supply under working hours constraints - Assessing the potential of a family working time benefit in Germany

    (joint with Kai-Uwe Müller and Katharina Wrohlich) 
    The majority of empirical labor supply models used for policy evaluation assumes observed hours of work as revealed preferences of individuals or households. Economic actors maximize their utility by choosing among different bundles of income and leisure. By assumption their choice is not constrained by regulations, institutions, or insufficient labor demand. In this paper we evaluate the employment effects of a policy proposal for which restrictions on the choice of working hours are crucial by using a structural labor supply model with working hours constraints. The family working time benefit (FWTB) is targeted at couple households with young children and designed to improve the financial incentives for a more equal distribution of gainful employment and care or family duties among spouses. Conditional on both partners working around 30 hours per week (equal to 80% of a conventional full-time job) the (hypothetical) income difference to their full-time income is partially compensated. Although its employment effects would be rather small, we find that FWTB reaches its goal by reducing working hours for fathers and increasing them for mothers. The pure incentive effect on labor supply is roughly halved when accounting for working hours constraints.

    Referent/-in
    Zeit
    12:30-13:30
    Ort
    Eleanor-Dulles-Raum DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Raum 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 610
    12. Februar 2014

    BeNA - Seminar für Arbeitsmarktforschung ICT and Education: Evidence from Internet Access at Pupil Home Addresses

    Abstract: How do falling costs of accessing information and communication affect human capital formation? This paper combines administrative test score records for the population of English primary and secondary school students with information about available internet speed at student home addresses to contribute to our understanding of this question. In the first step, we use data from UK internet providers to estimate the technological relationship between residential distances to connected telephone exchange stations and internet connection speeds.

    Mehr Informationen
    Referent/-in
  • Rosa Sanchis-Guarner-Herrero
  • Zeit
    18:30 - 20:00
    Ort
    Gustav-Schmoller-Raum DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Raum 3.3.002A Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    5. Februar 2014

    BeNA - Seminar für Arbeitsmarktforschung Door Opener or Waste of Time? The Effects of Internships on Labor Market Outcomes

    Abstract: This paper studies the effect of internships while enrolled at university on labor market choices and wages later in life. We use variation in the introduction and abolishment of mandatory internships at German universities in the wake of the Bologna reform as an instrument for doing an internship.

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    Referent/-in
  • Nils Saniter (DIW Berlin)
  • Zeit
    18:30 - 20:00
    Ort
    RWI Berlin in the facilities of the Leibniz-Gemeinschaft (R. 1.15) Chausseestr. 111 10115 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    extern
    , Universität Potsdam
    29. Januar 2014

    Cluster-Seminar Öffentliche Finanzen und Lebenslagen Is Being Tough Helpful? Search Requirements, Sanction Threats and Time to Job Finding

    (joint with Patrick Arni) 
    The enforcement of job search requirements is increasingly employed to determine the level of search effort provided by unemployment insurance recipients. We evaluate the impacts of this policy on the rate of job finding. Previous research on job search monitoring has focused on the effects of an imposed benefit sanction. By estimating the impacts of requirement policies and their anticipated enforcement, we analyze how monitoring affects search outcomes before a sanction event occurs. New Swiss administrative data sources allow us to match individual-level information on requirement setting, compliance behavior and enforcement policies. We estimate a multivariate duration model which we complement with quasi-experimental variation in our parameters of interest. Our preliminary results indicate that additional applications generated by a high-requirement policy do not directly translate into job search success. Search requirements rather seem to influence unemployment exit rates through changes in non-compliance behavior and sanction anticipation.

    Referent/-in
    Zeit
    12:30-13:30
    Ort
    Eleanor-Dulles-Raum DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Raum 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 610
    29. Januar 2014

    BeNA - Seminar für Arbeitsmarktforschung Negative reciprocal inclinations drive workers' reaction to perceived contract breaches: Evidence on heterogeneous responses of public sector workers to a retrenchment of pension rights

    Abstract: We document the importance of negatively reciprocal inclinations in labor relationships by showing that a retrenchment of pension rights, which is perceived as unfair, causes a larger reduction in job motivation the stronger workers' negatively reciprocal inclinations are. We exploit unique matched survey and administrative data on male employees in the public sector in the Netherlands and compare the job motivation of employees born in 1950, who faced a substantial retrenchment of their pension rights resulting from a pension reform in 2006, to that of slightly older employees who remain entitled to more generous pension benefits. Job motivation is significantly lower among negatively reciprocal employees who were affected by the reform. The adverse effect on job motivation is greater for negative reciprocal employees born very shortly after the cut-off date of January 1, 1950, as well as for those with many untreated colleagues who perceive the policy change as being more unfair. We also find that the treatment effect is stronger among workers who are more likely to hold their employer accountable for the drop in their pension rights, that is, those who work for the national government which initiated the pension reform.

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    Referent/-in
  • Raymond Montizaan (Maastricht University), mit Frank Cörvers, Andries de Grip, Thomas Dohmen
  • Zeit
    18:30 - 20:00
    Ort
    Humboldt Universität Berlin Room 125 Spandauer Str. 1 10178 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    extern
    , Universität Potsdam
    22. Januar 2014

    BeNA - Seminar für Arbeitsmarktforschung Effects of the 2009 Scrappage Premium on German Households’ Consumption Patterns

    Abstract: We use the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) to analyze household consumption spending reactions to the German 2009 car scrappage scheme. The subsidy meant a windfall gain to concerned households and a rational reaction would be to adjust the consumption path to the increase in permanent income. Applying regression methods, we model different categories of consumption spending (nondurables, durables, services, and overall consumption) as a function of the scrappage dummy, the household income and further controls for the respective household and its head and evaluate differences of household consumption spending between subsidized and non-subsidized car buyers.

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    Referent/-in
  • Stefan Witte (Saarland University)
  • Zeit
    18:30 - 20:00
    Ort
    WZB - Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung Reichpietschufer 50 10785 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    extern
    , Universität Potsdam
    15. Januar 2014

    BeNA - Seminar für Arbeitsmarktforschung Spite - another aspect of competition?

    Abstract: While numerous experiments demonstrate how pro-sociality can influence economic decision-making, evidence on explicitly anti-social economic behavior has thus far been limited. In this paper we investigate the importance of spite in experimental rent-seeking contests. Our social preference elicitations reveal that subjects'investments are driven by spite, not fairness or reciprocity.

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    Referent/-in
  • Benedikt Hermann (University of Nottingham)
  • Zeit
    18:30 - 20:00
    Ort
    Gustav-Schmoller-Raum DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Raum 3.3.002A Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    extern
    , Universität Potsdam
    8. Januar 2014

    BeNA - Seminar für Arbeitsmarktforschung Understanding the effect of retirement on health using Regression Discontinuity Design

    Peter Eibich (DIW Berlin) will present his paper "Understanding the effect of retirement on health using Regression Discontinuity Design". This paper estimates the causal effect of retirement on health. Discontinuities in retirement age induced by the German pension system are exploited to identify the effect in a Regression Discontinuity design. Self-reported health status and the physical and mental summary score of the SF12 measure are used as dependent variables. The results show an increase in all health measures upon retirement. There is evidence for effect heterogeneity with respect to gender, occupational strain and the partner's retirement status. Analyzing the effect of retirement on health behavior as possible mechanisms suggests that the positive effects on health are caused by an increase in physical activity.

    Mehr Informationen
    Speaker
  • Peter Eibich (DIW)
  • Ort
    RWI Berlin in the facilities of the Leibniz-Gemeinschaft (R. 1.15) Chausseestr. 111 10115 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 376
    11. Dez 2013

    BeNA - Seminar für Arbeitsmarktforschung How to Stimulate Single Mothers to Leave Welfare for Work: Evidence from a Field Experiment

    We present the results from a field experiment in which single mothers on welfare were stimulated to find a job. Two policy instruments were introduced: an earnings disregard and job creation. The experiment was performed at the level of municipalities in The Netherlands, a country with relatively high benefits and low incentives for single mothers to leave welfare for work. In our analysis we make a distinction between native and immigrant welfare recipients. For immigrant single mothers we find a positive employment effect of an earnings disregard. For native single mothers with the youngest child between 5 and 11 years the earnings disregard had a weakly significant positive effect on working hours. Job creation in addition to the earnings disregard increased working hours for immigrant single mothers with the youngest child between the age of 5 and 11 and for native single mothers with the youngest child in the age category from 0 to 4 years. Although the outflow from welfare is not affected, welfare expenditures go down.

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    Speaker
  • Jan van Ours (Tilburg University), joint with Marike Knoef
  • Ort
    Humboldt Universität Berlin Raum 21A Spandauer Straße 1
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 376
    4. Dez 2013

    BeNA - Seminar für Arbeitsmarktforschung When parental background matters: the intergenerational mobility and assimilation of Italian immigrants in Germany

    Abstract: This study presents an empirical analysis of intergenerational mobility in educational achievements of Italian immigrants in Germany. For this purpose a model of intergenerational human capital transmission is introduced and applied to the specific situation of immigrants and their offspring in the host country. The model is empirically tested by means of OLS and Probit estimation based on household survey data from German Socioeconomic Panel (SOEP) and checked with an until now unexplored database from the Registry of Italians Resident Abroad (A.I.R.E.). Alternative measures to compare intergenerational mobility of immigrants and natives are also determined by the transition-matrix approach. Consistent with suggestions of previous studies and economic theory, substantial inequality of educational achievements between immigrants and natives is found, with the gap getting lower in the case of „second generation“ immigrants. Nevertheless, the findings of this study show that the children of Italian immigrants exhibit higher intergenerational education mobility than natives, suggesting that the assimilation process of this group in the host country is not slowed down by persistence of educational disadvantages. Moreover, holding parental education constant, Italian second generation immigrants have no less opportunities than natives to achieve higher schooling degrees. In further analytical steps, the impact of ethnicity on human capital accumulation is estimated through characteristics like migration time, language spoken at home and Italian region of provenience.

    Mehr Informationen
    Referent/-in
  • Guido Neidhöfer (Free University Berlin)
  • Zeit
    6:30 - 8:00 pm
    Ort
    WZB - Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung Reichpietschufer 50 10785 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    extern
    , Universität Potsdam
    27. Nov 2013

    SOEP Brown Bag Seminar Looking Back in Anger? Retirement and Unemployment Scarring

    (joint with A. Knabe und R. Schöb)
    Unemployment leaves scars since it lowers workers' life satisfaction even when they are reemployed. Using German panel data, we test whether unemployment experience prior to retirement lowers well-being in retirement. Although retired people report the less life satisfaction the more unemployment they experienced, we cannot attribute this difference to unemployment. A final unemployment spell does not lower life satisfaction after retirement below the level during employment before. Actually, people are the more satisfied after retirement compared to employment periods the more unemployment they experienced in their lives. Our findings indicate that scars of unemployment are limited to working life and that retirement helps people to overcome issues coinciding with unemployment experience.

    Referent/-in
  • Clemens Hetschko (FU Berlin)
  • Zeit
    12:30-13:30
    Ort
    Eleanor-Dulles-Raum DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Raum 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 461
    20. Nov 2013

    Cluster-Seminar Öffentliche Finanzen und Lebenslagen Employment and Wage Impacts of Social Security Contributions

    We present work in progress on evaluating the employment and wage effects of social security contributions (SSC). We propose to use an equilibrium job search model allowing for extensive and intensive employment reactions, with firms also changing wages. The model naturally generates adjustment dynamics. Using firm-level data on productivity will allow us to identify to what extent productive workers and productive firms sort positively - an estimate for which we believe tax policy must be taken into account. We include detailed information on corporate taxation. The direction and degree of sorting will also determine the distributional impacts of SSC policies across different individuals. We propose to use long-running matched employer-employee data from France and Germany to consider the impacts of large changes in SSC on employment and wages.

    Referent/-in
    Ort
    Eleanor-Dulles-Raum DIW Berlin im Quartier 110 Raum 5.2.010 Mohrenstraße 58 10117 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    im DIW Berlin
    Tel.: +49 30 89789 610
    20. Nov 2013

    BeNA - Seminar für Arbeitsmarktforschung The returns to graduating with honors - Evidence from law graduates

    Abstract:
    The paper studies the causal effects of graduating from university with an honors degree on subsequent labor market outcomes. While a rich literature has focused on the identification of the returns to human capital, few studies could analyze returns at the very top of the education distribution. We highlight the importance of honors degrees for future labor market success in the context of German law students. Using multiple empirical designs (regression-control, matching, difference-in-difference, regression discontinuity design), we find that students of law who passed the state bar exam with an honors degree receive a sizable and significant earnings premium, are more likely to work in public service, are less likely to be self-employed, and are more often engaged in Ph.D. studies.

    Mehr Informationen
    Referent/-in
  • Mathias Schumann (University of Hamburg)
  • Zeit
    18:30 - 20:00
    Ort
    RWI Berlin in the facilities of the Leibniz-Gemeinschaft (R. 1.15) Chausseestr. 111 10115 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    extern
    , Universität Potsdam
    13. Nov 2013

    BeNA - Seminar für Arbeitsmarktforschung The Impact of Education on Personality - Evidence from a German High School Reform

    Abstract: This paper investigates the short-term effects of reducing the length of upper secondary school on students' personality traits using state-level high school reforms in Germany as a quasi-natural experiment. Starting in 2001, the number of years of the academic secondary school track (Gymnasium) was gradually reduced from nine to eight in most of Germany's federal states, leaving the overall curriculum unchanged.

    Mehr Informationen
    Referent/-in
    Zeit
    18:30 - 20:00
    Ort
    Humboldt Universität Berlin Room 125 Spandauer Str. 1 10178 Berlin
    Ansprechpartner/-in
    extern
    , Universität Potsdam
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