Publikationen des DIW Berlin


Aufsätze referiert extern - ISI

Offset Credits in the EU ETS: A Quantile Estimation of Firm-Level Transaction Costs Helene Naegele In: Environmental & Resource Economics 70 (2018), 1, S. 77-106


International carbon offset certificates were cheaper than European Union Allowances, although they were substitutes within the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS). Thus, firms had a strong incentive to use offset certificates. However, a considerable number of firms did not exhaust their offset quota and, by doing so, seemingly forwent profits. While most literature on emissions trading evaluates the efficiency of regulation in a frictionless world, in practice firms incur costs when complying with regulation. In order to assess the relevance of trade-related fixed transaction costs, this study examines the use of international offset credits in the EU ETS. It establishes a model of firm decision under fixed (quantity-invariant) entry costs and estimates the size of such costs rationalizing firm behavior using semi-parametric binary quantile regressions. Comparing binary quantile results with probit estimates shows that high average transaction costs result from a strongly skewed underlying distribution. For most firms, the bulk of transaction costs stems from certificate trading in general, rather than additional participation in offset trading.




Binary quantile estimation, CDM, Climate change, Carbon emissions trading, Entry costs, EU ETS, Offset certificates, Semi-parametric estimation, Transaction costs