The German electricity market is facing two major challenges: competition and climate protection. The liberalization of the electricity sector in Europe following the directive on the single internal market is increasing competition between suppliers of electricity, while the trading in emissions certificates, which started in January 2005, aims at reducing emission of carbon dioxide. This gives a
Top-down computable general equilibrium (CGE) models are used extensively for analysis of energy and climate policies. Energy-intensive industries are usually represented in top-down economic models as abstract economic production functions, of the constantelasticity-of-substitution (CES) functional form. This study explores methods for improving the realism of energy-intensive industries in top
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